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Winemaking Fermentation Techniques and Mouthfeel: An ICV Perspective Dominique DELTEIL ICV Guideline for Mouthfeel Management Presentation plan ICV Guideline for Mouthfeel Management The Sensory Tools : sensory method, database, reference profiles
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First Key Point in Guideline : a tool to measure the progress and guide the process
Otherwise, we are no longer referring to consulting anymore. It is just a ‘guru’ attitude that is out of ICV Consulting Good Practice Guideline.
6The 6 Descriptors of ICV Mouthfeel Profile (Red wines)
Measured Order of the 6 descriptors
A quick glance to form a picture of the different profiles possible
High foremouth sensations and low aggressive final sensations
Low foremouth sensations and high aggressive final sensations
Low foremouth sensations and high mid-palate + high final aggressive sensations
Very dry and bitter in the back of the mouth + metallic sensations
our database :
1) Conform, 2) Limit and 3) Non-conforming Profiles
Quick glance to have a picture of the different profiles possible
good / evil,
Mouthfeel on the Limit
Easy-to-remember profiles that can be referred to during maceration or aging
« + correlation » means: same trend
« - correlation » means: contrary trend
(+) doesn’t mean « good »
(-) doesn’t mean « evil »
Let’s leave « good » and « evil » judgements to consumers and wine writers!
(a myth… just a short sweet peak in the mid-palate and a higher dryness in the finish)
Cap Management effects on Mouthfeel
No Maceration Enzymes
+ cleaner aromas & more stable colour
70’s yeast selection made on basic parameters
Selection made to achieve today’s Ultra- Premium wine conformity
+ richer, cleaner aromas & more stable colour + limiting Atypical Aging in whites
+ riper, cleaner aromas
Délestage can be started as soon as the cap is formed. Délestage is also nteresting during cold soak (with little air addition)
1= yeast at the bottom of the tank
2= fermenting juice not in contact with the pomace
3= pigment and tannins concentrated juice below the pomace : low extraction, low stabilization
4= juice bathing the pomace
5= emerged pomace : no juice contact
First tank is completely drained. An open jet in a bucket allows a true juice oxygenation : 2 to 4 mg/liter dissolved oxygen
Some other systems can give a similar efficiency in adding dissolved oxygen
Délestage. Step #1 (cont.)
Complete draining of the first tank is a key point of délestage. The most concentrated juice (the juice just below the cap) is renewed and oxygenated.
A pumping over does not renew this juice. A punching down renews it, but does not oxygenate it.
Délestage. Step #2
Complete draining of the cap achieves the diffusion goals : extracts the most interesting grape macromolecules. Complete aeration brings stabilisation, tannin « coating / enrobage » and sulfur off-flavor management
The return of the juice is done with high flow and low pressure (flooding), to avoid mechanical action on the cap. It is not necessary to look for a complete cap bathing
When the cap stays together, it percolates through the juice or the wine. In other situations, it « melts » in the juice giving also excellent juice / cap exchanges, without violent extractions
Only pumping over, 15 days maceration
7 Délestages during a 15 days maceration
+ riper, cleaner aromas & more stable colour (with the same analytical amount of polyphenols)
Ageability is a segmented concept :
Sulphur compounds and macromolecules : technical key points for ageability
I’d like to thank Sigrid Gersten-Briand (Lallemand) for translation and Bruce Zoeklein (Virginia Tech) for invitation