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Trans Fatty Acids. The King and I (Hans-aka Jeff, and Elvis aka Will). So what’s the big deal?. In 1995 trans fatty acids make up an estimated 4-12% of the average American’s dietary fat intake (Roach et al 2004). That’s 2-4% of total energy input, or as much as 13.3 g of trans fatty acid/day!

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trans fatty acids

Trans Fatty Acids

The King and I (Hans-aka Jeff, and Elvis aka Will)

so what s the big deal
So what’s the big deal?
  • In 1995 trans fatty acids make up an estimated 4-12% of the average American’s dietary fat intake (Roach et al 2004).
  • That’s 2-4% of total energy input, or as much as 13.3 g of trans fatty acid/day!
  • Drink coke
what are trans fatty acids
What are trans fatty acids
  • Fatty Acids-long chain carbon complexes
  • Classified as
    • Saturated
    • Unsaturated
          • Cis-normal biological conformation
    • Trans-distorted conformation-resembles saturated
    • Free beer
what s the deal with these fatty acids
What’s the deal with these fatty acids?
  • Hydrogenation- a process to transform saturated fatty acids in the form of oils to a more viscous unsaturated form. (eg. Vegetable oil margarine).
  • This process results in a combination of cis and trans unsaturated fatty acids.
  • Free Tibet
so what s the big deal8
So what’s the big deal?
  • Trans fatty acids do occur in nature (Jirovitz et al), but in extremely small amounts. Thanks to the process of hydrogenation, a little bit has turned into a lot.
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so what s the big deal9
So what’s the big deal?
  • Fatty acids play many important roles in the cell
    • Intracellular signaling
    • Make up membrane that holds the cell together
    • Energy storage
so what
So what?
  • Well, since this drastic change in conformation changes how the fatty acid functions in the roles it holds. This has implicated it in many health problems
    • Increase in coronary disease, and arteriosclerosis rates
    • Potential carcinogens
    • Accumulates in body-tougher to get rid of!
what s the difference
What’s the difference?
  • Results in a change in shape of the long carbon chain of the fatty acid.
  • In chemistry, shape has a strong influence on how the molecule interacts with other molecules.
  • Eat fries
what happens to the membrane
What happens to the membrane?

Figure 1. Effect of conformation on membrane fluidity

any more bad news
Any more bad news?

Figure 2. Effect of conformation on membrane permeability

how do they contribute to heart disease
How do they contribute to heart disease?
  • Activity of 12-P LOX is suppressed by all cis–trans fatty acids used
  • Cycloxygenase/thromboxane synthase activity is significantly inhibited by polyunsaturated fattyacids.
  • Trans fatty acids may modify the activity of receptors and other membrane proteins.
  • Bush Sucks-one term president!!!
what s the cancer connection
What’s the cancer connection
  • Strong correlations between accumulation of trans fatty acids in butt fat, and breast cancer rates.
  • Comparisons were done with women who had low, vs high trans fatty acid consumption.
  • Showed 40% increase in risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Ban the bomb
any more bad news16
Any more bad news?
  • Increases likelihood of developing type II diabetes.
  • Increases LDL levels in blood (baaaaaad cholesterol!)
  • God shave the Queen.
what s the king to do
What’s the King to do?
  • Cut back on the fast food
  • Cut back on the margarine
  • Limit overall fat intake
  • Moderation is key
  • Give us an A
references
References
  • Special Thanks to Johnny Mack, and Jewels, for the “Renegades”, and the the hair care!
  • Roach et al. Comparison of cis and trans fatty acid containing phosphatidylcholines on
  • membrane properties. Biochemistry 2004, 43, 6344-6351
  • Ewa Stachowska et al. Trans Fatty Isomers Modify Lipoxygenase and Cyclooxygenase/Thromboxane Synthase. Nutrition Volume 20, Number 6, 2004
  • JIROVETZ et al.Aroma Compound Analysis of Eruca sativa (Brassicaceae)
  • SPME Headspace Leaf Samples Using GC, GC-MS, and
  • Olfactometry. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 4643-4646
  • www.sciencedaily.com
  • www.dannycarey.org