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Separating Mixtures - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Separating Mixtures. How do we separate …?. Filtration Chromatography Centrifuging Evaporating Crystallisation Dissolving Decantation Sieving Flotation Sedimentation.

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

Filtration

  • Chromatography
  • Centrifuging
  • Evaporating
  • Crystallisation
  • Dissolving
  • Decantation
  • Sieving
  • Flotation
  • Sedimentation
slide4

Filtration - The process whereby fluids pass through a filter or a filtering medium. A process like sieving, where large particles are caught on filter paper, whilst solutions pass through

slide6

Centrifuges rotate containers of

  • liquids to separate suspended
  • materials with different densities.
  • Centrifuges separate different components of human blood or milk and to clarify solutions. A high speed separator can rotate at great speed to separate fat (cream) from milk.
  • The spin drier in washing machines is a type of centrifuge that throws out the liquid by the "centrifugal force" of the rotation.
slide10

Evaporationchanges state from a liquid to a gas. Evaporation occurs only from the surface of the liquid.

slide12

Crystallization refers to the formation of solid crystals from a homogeneous solution.  It is essentially a solid-liquid separation technique.

slide13
Crystal = a solid in which the atoms, molecules or ions are packed in a regular, ordered, repeated pattern.

Examples …salt, sugar, baking soda, baking powder, quartz, diamonds,

slide15

Distillation is a method used to separate a liquid from a solution through boiling and condensation

Rose oil distillation

slide19

Chromatography ( colour writing) is used to separate small amounts of chemicals so that they can be analysed.

  • Different substances or different components move at different speeds through a strip of wet paper a gel or a gas.
slide20

EXTRACTING OIL FROM NUTS.1 Place ground peanuts into a mortar. 2 Add 20 mL of methylated spirits. 3 Thoroughly grind nuts in solvent. 4 Pour liquid into a test-tube5 Filter into an evaporating basin. 6 Warm evaporating basin for 10 minutes. 7 The solvent evaporates leaving the oil extracted from the nuts.