3-17-16 Starter: Discussion of response journal topics Agenda: • Review: Teaching Writing • ETC, Chapter 5
Subject Text CONTEXT Writer Reader
Reader uses text to learn about subject. Reader uses text to find out how much the writer knows about the subject. Reader uses text to find out what writer know about conventions of the genre..
Subject Text CONTEXT Expressivist Formalist Writer Reader Constructivist
Gallagher: The Pillars of Writing Success • Students need a lot more writing practice. • Students need teachers who model good writing practice. • Students need the opportunity to read and study other writers. • Students need choice when it comes to writing topics. • Students need to write for authentic purposes and for authentic audiences. • Students need meaningful feedback from both the teacher and their peers.
Creating Effective Assignments Task Sequencing Writing Processes Audience Schedule Assessment Aspects on Which to Comment Quality of ideas Appropriateness of the material Accuracy of content presented Organization of ideas Depth/development of ideas Likely audience reactions Stylistic issues Grammar/mechanics issues Triangulate!
Principles for Using Rubrics Responsibly Use a rubric that matches your instructional goals. Acknowledge the limitations of rubrics. Remember that rubrics don’t simply measure quality;rather, they define quality. Distribute rubrics to studentsat the BEGINNING of the assignment. Use a variety of rubrics. (One size DOES NOT fit all!)
A few concerns about rubrics: • They create the illusion of objectivity. (The decision to include to exclude any particular trait is a subjective one.) • They force readers to set aside their professional experience and read “as if” they were somebody else. (That is, rubrics create the fiction of a single reader, although in the real world, no two readers are exactly alike.) • They can’t capture any feature not specifically targeted. • They can stifle students’ creativity, especially if students write for the rubric. • A rubric can be a substitute for “meaningful response.” • The standardization of rubrics could lead to the standardization of writing.
The Assessment Loop: Goals Plan(to achieve goals) Interpret Results Teach Assess • TEACH writing • USE writing to teach the curriculum
Questions related to Teaching Writing? Moving on: Teaching Reading
Teaching reading as a process: Before Purpose: Information? Answers? Entertainment? Method: Skim? Annotate? Enjoy? Format: Paper? Screen? Stance: Literal? Figurative? Directions to follow? Place to read? During Connect: to world to self to other texts Evaluate: What’s vital? What’s “gravy”? Monitor: Effectiveness of strategies Interest, fatigue, etc Progress toward goal Write: annotate take notes ask questions After Assess: completion of tasks understanding of key ideas Solidify: Talk or write to help keep ideas in memory Reread: as needed, to clarify to check directions and goals Reflect: consider effectiveness of practices
Look at Burke’s “Reading Process Self-Evaluation” form on p 156. You might use or adapt this form to have students create a description of their own reading processes – and to help you plan instruction more effectively. (Think APS 1, 2-3) Use reading (i.e., texts) to teach writing. Use writing (notes, summaries, analyses) to teach reading. Practice with one of Gallagher’s “Article of the Week” selectionsand Burke’s “Summary Notes” form (p 160).
Key lines (for me) from Burke: 140 (quoting Gallagher): “…the inane, mind-numbing practices found in school.” 141 (quoting Miller): “I am not mandating an activity for them that I do not engage in myself. … I advocate reading because it is enjoyable and enriching.” 145 (quoting Prose): “[T]oo many schools have ‘traded complexity for diversity.’” 146: “What we need … is a curriculum that invites students to answer the essential questions we all ask.” 161: “What some might see as taking too long, I see as effective reading instruction.”
Burke’s “Principles and Practices” of Effective Reading Instruction Teachers provide direct instruction throughout the reading process. Teachers integrate instruction throughout the content of their courses. Students read interesting or real-world texts for authentic reasons to increase engagement and motivation. Students engage in regular, authentic discussions in class and online about a variety of texts. Teachers provide targeted, strategic instruction to the whole class, specific groups of students, or individuals as needed. Teachers select texts that grow progressively more complex. Teachers have students write intensively and frequently about what they read. Teachers assess students before, as, and after they read a text. Teachers provide time in class and outside to support extensive reading of both assigned and self-selected texts. Teachers use a variety of instructional strategies to support and enhance reading instruction.
What kinds of reading are you likely to teach during your student teaching? What questions (or fears) do you have?