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Organization-Driven System Development Building Agent Software for E-Business Manuel Kolp mkolp@cs.toronto.edu http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~mkolp/tropos Department of Computer Science University of Toronto M5S 3G4 Toronto, Canada At a Glimpse We Disagree

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organization driven system development building agent software for e business

Organization-Driven System DevelopmentBuilding Agent Software for E-Business

Manuel Kolp

mkolp@cs.toronto.edu

http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~mkolp/tropos

Department of Computer Science

University of Toronto

M5S 3G4 Toronto, Canada

at a glimpse
At a Glimpse
  • We Disagree
  • Installing the Information Organization
  • TROPOS: Enterprise Requirements Development
  • Agents = An Organizational Paradigm
  • Developing a B2C System with TROPOS
    • Requirements Analysis ( organizational models)
    • System Design (organizational architectures)
    • Implementation (agent organizations)
  • The Final Picture

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

we disagree
We Disagree

"Software always has errors. We're just happy that no one gets killed when the system fails."

Berlin S-Bahn train control system. Software Engineering Notes vol 22 no 2, 03/1997.

”That is not the software system that must adapt to the Organization but the Organization that must adapt to SAP or Notes”

SAP & Lotus Notes solutions for Knowledge Management @

Ernst & Young. Business Week, 06/98.

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

users don t know what they want until they don t get it
Users don’t know what they want until they don’t get it

[Jim Townsend Wired 05/00]

  • Runaway projects
    • 52% of projects cost ~ 180% of original estimate;
    • Average project overrun: 222% [Standish Grp, 95]
    • 50% of projects become runaways [LaPlante, 98]
    • 65% of firms “grossly” over budget [Cringley, 97]
  • Project abandonment
    • 31% of projects canceled before completion [Standish Grp, 95]
    • For 6 new large systems put in operation, 2 canceled [Gibbs, 94]
  • Ineffective systems
    • Average project : 61% of original functions [Standish Grp, 95]

See CHAOS Report - http://standishgroup.com

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

do you know what it costs
Do You Know What It Costs ?

E.g., Y2KB Forecasts [Forbes 04/99]

  • 1994-1999
    • Initial software repairs $ 530
    • Secondary "bad fix" software repairs $ 50
    • Test library repairs $ 75
    • Database repairs $ 454
    • Hardware chip replacements $ 76
    • Hardware performance upgrades $ 150
  • 2000-2005
    • Litigation and damages $ 300
    • Post-2000 damages (??) $ 582
    • Post-2000 recovery expenses (??) $ 1406
  • Grand Total$ 3,623 BILLIONS

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

we need methodologies ists
We Need Methodologies(ists)

TROPOS[Mylopoulos 00]

  • Project on Software / IS Engineering @ DCS - U of T
  • Keywords:Requirements-Driven Method, Organization Modeling, Organizational Architectures, AgentPlatforms, ...
  • Previous research : 2 long-term projects on Conceptual Modeling over 25 years:
    • Taxis [Mylopoulos80] : “object “ design language for IS;
    • Telos [Mylopoulos90] : language for modeling requirements, design, implementation for IS.

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

instilling the information organization
Instilling the Information Organization

Enterprise Information Systems must integrate organizational and system models to match theirOperational Environment.

  • ERP systems: Process view of the enterprise to meet organizational goals, integrating all functions from the enterprise organization.
  • Knowledge management systems help the enterprise gain insight from its knowledge hidden in the organization. [Nonaka95, Davenport 98]
    • KM: IT System + Organizational Adjustments + Personnel Incentives
  • E-business systems implement “virtual enterprises” on organizational patterns that drive their business processes.

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

knowledge and information economy

Customer

Relationship

Management

System

Product

Innovation

Knowledge & Information

Management

Knowledge and Information Economy

Organizational Leadership has to adapt to Corporate Knowledge and Information Tacit Assets

[Hagel & Singer 1999]

Leader-

ship

Infrastructure

Management

Underlies Intellectual Capital [Sveiby97]

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

mismatch and requirements driven development
Mismatch and Requirements-Driven Development
  • Operational environment in terms of stakeholders, qualities, responsibilities, objectives, and resources, roles, needs...
  • Versus information systems as a collection of (software) modules, data structures and interfaces.
  • Impedance Mismatch  Poor quality, Failure

Why not requirements-driven to avoid that mismatch?

Organizational concepts not only for Early Requirements but the Entire Development Life Cycle

 TROPOS

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

life cycle
Life Cycle
  • 1. Early requirements: understanding a problem by studying an organizationalsetting; output : organizational model with relevant actors, their goals and inter-dependencies
  • 2. Late requirements: system-to-be described within its operationalenvironment, with relevant functions and qualities
  • 3. Architectural design: global architecture defined in terms of interconnected subsystems
  • 4. Detailed design: behavior of each architectural component defined in detail
  • 5. Implementation: system implementation carried out consistently with detailed design

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

requirements driven business centric
Requirements-Driven = Business-Centric
  • Focusing on Goals (Intentions) and Requirements (Needs)
  • Natural
    • pre-teen, teen: want to be a firefighter, NHL player, pop star
    • Ivy League Student: want/need to pass exams

Sameconcepts for Requirements and Enterprise Ontologies

  • Enterprise Ontology [Uschold98] :
    • Requirements, Goals, Quality Goals, Needs, Stakeholders, Strategic Relationships, Tasks, Roles, Organizational Dependencies, ...
    • Ex.: “Higher profits”, “Faster time-to-market”, “Good performance”, …
    • (+ Balanced Scorecard [Kaplan2000]: Strategy-Focused Organization)

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

who is considering corporate requirements
Who is considering Corporate Requirements?

i*

TROPOS

GAIA

KAOS

Z

AUML

UML, Catalysis & Co.

!! The GAP !!

Oracle / Designer 2000, IBM / Websphere, SAP/R3

Detailed

design

Architectural

design

Early

requirements

Late

requirements

Implementation

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

an organizational computing paradigm
An Organizational Computing Paradigm
  • Agent : Individual who can act
    • Autonomous, pro- active, adaptative

with/in its environment Intelligence

  • Software Agent
    • Implemented with/in software technologies
    • Environment : humans, machines, other software

agents, platforms.

Multi-agent system: organization of individuals to achieve particular, possible common goals.

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

inside the bdi model
Inside the BDI Model

Human

Belief, Desire, Intentions Agent

Beliefs - database

of perceived

world knowledge

Beliefs - perceived

understanding

of the world

Goals or desires

Goals or desires

Execution

Engine

Intentions -

currently executing

plans

Pre-compiled plans

Accumulated behaviours

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

agents at work

Goal/Desire/Need

New Beliefs/Facts

Contextual Beliefs

Running Plan/Intention

Agents at Work

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

agents for companies firms
Agents for Companies & Firms
  • Nomadic Computing (SUN, Oracle)
  • Call Centers (Bell, AT&T), Internet Routing (CISCO, Nortel, Juniper)
  • Knowledge Management (Ernst & Young, McKinsey & Company)
  • Information Management : Brokering (Hotbot), Meta Search (Digital)
  • Groupware (Lotus), Workflow (IBM)
  • E-trading, E-Brokering (Goldman & Sachs, Prudential Securities)

L'euro a également succombé aux programmes de vente automatiques des institutions financières: les grands acteurs du marché des changes (banques, fonds, etc.) utilisent en effet des programmes dits “agents intelligents” qui déclenchent automatiquement un ordre de vente dans certaines conditions. Il semble que ces programmes se soient déclenchés ce mercredi matin à Londres après que l'euro a touché plusieurs fois le seuil des 88,51 cents , explique un cambiste allemand. (from Le Soir 09/07/2000)

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

a user 2 on line buying system
A User 2 On-line Buying System
  • Media taxonomy
    • on-line catalog
    • DBMS
  • E-Shopping Cart
    • Check In
    • Buying
    • Check Out
  • Search Engine
    • catalog browser
    • Keywords
    • full-text
  • Secure
    • $ transactions
    • orders
  • Multimedia
    • description
    • samples

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

1 early requirements analysis with tropos
1. Early Requirements Analysis with TROPOS
  • Understanding the problem by studying an existing organizational setting;
  • Output : Organizational model with relevant actors and respective goals.
  • i* [Yu95]

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

softgoals
Softgoals
  • Functional goals, such as “Handle Customers Orders” : well defined goals in the sense that they admit a formal definition.
  • Not all goals are functional.
  • “Increase Market Share”, “Happy Customers” or “Easily Adaptable System” : qualities that the software system should adhere to.
  • Non functional Goals: softgoals, “fuzzy goals” (clouds) with no clearcut criteria for satisfaction;
  • Hence softgoals are satisficed, not satisfied.
  • How well the system accomplishes its functions

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

means ends analysis functional alternatives
Means-Ends Analysis & Functional Alternatives

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

2 late requirements strategic relationships
2. Late Requirements (Strategic Relationships)

”Organizational Map”

Functions and qualities for the system within its environment

3 architectural design
3. Architectural Design
  • Global architecture in terms of interconnected subsystems.
  • 3 Steps
    • 1Macrolevel : OrganizationalStyles (Organization Theory)
      • Vertical Integration, Pyramid, Joint Venture, Structure in 5, Bidding, Hierarchical Contracting, Co-optation, Takeover
    • 2Micro level : Patterns (Agent Community)
      • Broker, Matchmaker, Contract-Net, Mediator, Monitor, Embassy, Wrapper, Master-Slave, ...
    • 3Assigning Actors to Agents, Positions, Roles

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

organizational architectures macro level
Organizational Architectures (Macro Level)

Joint Venture

Structure in 5

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

patterns micro level
Patterns (Micro level)

Monitor

Embassy

Broker

Contract-Net

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

quality attributes for organizational architectures
Quality Attributes for Organizational Architectures
  • Predictability, Security, Adaptability, Cooperativity, Competitivity, Availability, Failability, Modularity, Aggregability,

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

selecting system architecture
Selecting System Architecture

[Chung00]

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

a joint venture e commerce architecture
A Joint-Venture E-commerce Architecture

”E-Business Organizational Map”

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

4 detailed design
4. Detailed Design
  • Architectural Agent components defined in details in terms of inputs, outputs, control, and other relevant information.

Shopping Cart

UML Classes

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

agent interaction protocol with auml
Agent Interaction Protocol with AUML

The Checkout Dialogue

Customer

Shopping Cart

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

plan diagram for checking out
Plan Diagram for checking out

Check Out

Plan

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

5 partial jack implementation for checking out
5. Partial JACK Implementation for checking out

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

why be formal precise semantics
Entity Order

HasorderId: Number, cust: Customer, date: Date,

tems: SetOf[MediaItem]

Entity MediaItem

HasitemId: Number, itemTitle: String, description: Text, editor: String …

ActorCustomer

HascustomerId: Number, name: Name, address: Address, tel: PhoneNumber, …

Capable of MakeOrder, Pay, Browse, …

Goal"order:Order $buy:BuyMediaItems[order] (order.cust=self ÙFulfil(buy))

ActorMediaShop

Hasname: {MediaLive}, address: {“735 Yonge Street”}, phone#: 0461-762-883

Capable of Sell, Ship, SendInvoice, …

Goal$ ms:IncreaseMarketShare(Fulfil(ms))

GoalDependencyBuyMediaItems

Mode Fulfil

Hasorder: Order

DefinedItemsReceivedOK(order)

Depender Customer

Dependee MediaShop

NecessaryFulfil( PlaceOrder(order))

SoftGoalDependency IncreaseMarketShare

Mode Maintain

Depender MediaShop

DependeeCustomer

Necessary"cust:Customer $place:PlaceOrder[order] (order.cust=cust ) Ù Fulfil(place))

ActionMakeOrder

Performed ByCustomer

RefinesPlaceOrder

Input cust : Customer, date : Date, items : SetOf[MediaItem]

Output order : Order

Post order.cust = cust Ù order.date = date Ù order.itemsitems

Why be Formal?  Precise Semantics

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

the tropos ontologies
The TROPOS Ontologies
  • (Formal) Specification of a conceptualization (= conceptual model)
    • Social -- who are the relevant actors, what do they want? What are their obligations? What are their capabilities?
    • Intentional -- what are the relevant goals and how do they interrelate? How are they being met, and by whom ask dependencies?
    • Communicational -- how the actors dialogue and how can they interact with each other?
    • Process-oriented -- what are the relevant business processes?
    • Structural -- How the actors are structured along with their inter-relationships?

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

the final picture
The Final Picture
  • IS Analysis and Design is
    • in no way UML only (or Oracle 8i, SAP/R3 methods)
      • Lots of weaknesses
  • Software Engineering in 2025 = Requirements Engineering + Software Geriatry + ? [van Lamsweerde 00]

Enterprise Information Systems should reflect the organizational environment

    • Modeled and Driven in terms of organization concepts and models to avoid mismatch and consider corporate assets

TROPOS, i*

    • Engineered within an organizational paradigm

Agents

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001

slide37
Q & A

Manuel Kolp, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science © 2000-2001