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Agent-Based Web Services for E-Business. Dr. Larry Kerschberg Co-Director, E-Center for E-Business George Mason University, USA Tutorial Notes: WISE 2001, Kyoto, Japan. Tutorial Outline. Agents and Agent-based Systems E-Business Concepts Web Services and Protocols Semantic Web Services

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agent based web services for e business

Agent-Based Web Services for E-Business

Dr. Larry Kerschberg

Co-Director, E-Center for E-Business

George Mason University, USA

Tutorial Notes: WISE 2001, Kyoto, Japan

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

tutorial outline
Tutorial Outline
  • Agents and Agent-based Systems
  • E-Business Concepts
  • Web Services and Protocols
  • Semantic Web Services
  • Conclusions

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

from internet to x net
From Internet to X-Net

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

agents
Agents
  • Concepts of agents, facilitators, brokers, and integrators are familiar to us,
  • They provide a metaphor for human agents,
  • They are software programs that have specific goals and possess knowledge associated with their tasks,
  • They can interact with their environment and with other agents,
  • They can be mobile and communicate with other agents by sending messages in an Agent Communication Language.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

agent characteristics
Agent Characteristics
  • Cooperation and negotiation.
    • Cooperate with both human agents and software agents.
    • Negotiate for goods, services and resources.
  • Mobility.
    • Agents may travel from site to site in a heterogeneous network!
  • Intelligence.
    • Agents may exhibit intelligence: reasoning about goals and intentions, use of domain knowledge, natural language processing, etc.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

agent characteristics6
Agent Characteristics
  • Agents should be endowed with:
    • Autonomy to make decisions based on their goals, beliefs and internal states,
    • Reactivity so that they may respond to events and actions,
    • Pro-activeness to take initiatives based on their goals and tasks,
    • Social ability to allow communication, negotiation and cooperation via some agent communication language.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

agent architectures
Agent Architectures
  • Mediated architectures
    • Brokers, mediators, wrappers, publish-subscribe mechanism for data push and pull.
    • Agents serve as active middleware in a client-server environment.
  • Multi-agent systems.
    • Intelligent agents with advanced capabilities such as team formation, agent-to-agent communication, joint beliefs, goals and plans.
  • Market-driven ensembles and swarms.
    • Market-view - parallel autonomous actions of rational individual agents will emerge into the collective behavior.
    • Swarm-view - agents adapt via evolutionary processes using AI techniques such as genetic programming and natural selection.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

agent based mediated negotiation
Agent-based Mediated Negotiation

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

agents for virtual private network provisioning
Agents for Virtual Private Network Provisioning
  • Users wish to set up a VPN,
  • There are several Service Providers
  • There are several Network Providers

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

knowledge rover architecture
Knowledge Rover Architecture
  • GMU DARPA Advanced Logistics Program.
  • Family of software agents with unique roles:
    • Line Agents
      • Coordinator Agent
      • User Agents
      • Facilitation Agents
      • Mediation Agents
      • Real-time Agents
      • Field Agents
    • Staff Agents
      • Knowledge Rovers
      • Active-View Agents
      • Information Curators

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

knowledge rover family
Knowledge Rover Family
  • Coordinator Agent — coordinates the activities of a group of agents. It is informed of significant events. A significant event can lead to the activation of new agents.
  • User Agents — acts on behalf of a user, and is responsible for assisting users:
    • 1) in browsing catalogs and information holdings,
    • 2) in the intelligent formulation of queries, and
    • 3) in the planning of tasks within a mission-specific scenario such as provisioning logistic support for a disaster relief effort.
  • Facilitation Agents — provide intelligent dictionary and object location services. For example a facilitation agent might accept a request from the Coordinator Agent to find all external providers of ‘antibiotics,’ and it might respond with the pharmaceutical producers and suppliers for the region in question.
  • Real-time Agents — are mission-specific, defined and configured to process incoming data, and update the appropriate database or notify the appropriate users. Real-time agents are responsible for monitoring the external environment, interacting with other systems, or acting on inputs from users.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

knowledge rover family continued
Knowledge Rover Family (continued)
  • Mediation Agents — are configured to assist in the integration of information from multiple data and information sources, having diverse data formats, different meanings, differing time units, and providing differing levels of information quality. Mediators are configured to accept queries from the Coordinator Agent, translate the queries into the query language of the appropriate database system, accept the retrieved result, integrate it with results from other sources, and return the information to the Coordinator Agent for presentation to the User Agent.
  • Field Agents — are specialized rovers that have expertise in a certain domain, for example, pharmaceuticals, and knowledge about domain-specific information holdings at one or more sites. For example, a field agent could be tasked to monitor all aspects of a single item, say an ‘antibiotic’ produced by several manufactures and distributed by several vendors. They negotiate with the local systems, retrieve appropriate data, and forward it to the appropriate requesting agent.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

knowledge rover family continued14
Knowledge Rover Family (continued)
  • Knowledge Rovers — are instructed to carry out specific tasks on behalf of the Coordinator Agent, such as to identify which vendors have a specific item on hand. This would involve obtaining information from several vendors. The knowledge rover dispatches field agents to specific sites to get the relevant information. If the knowledge rover gets similar information from more than one source, it may ask a mediator resolve the inconsistency.
  • Active View Agents — are created to monitor real-time events from the environment or from databases, and to use these events to initiate actions that will result in the update and synchronization of objects in the Knowledge Repository and also in local views maintained at user workstations.
  • Information Curators — are responsible for the quality of information the Knowledge Repository. They assist in evolving the data and knowledge bases associated with enterprise information resources. They work with knowledge rovers to incorporate newly discovered resources into the information repositories.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

mediated agency architecture
Mediated Agency Architecture

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

e business concepts

E-Business Concepts

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

the e enterprise framework
The E-Enterprise Framework

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

enterprise knowledge creation and distribution
Enterprise Knowledge Creation and Distribution
  • Acquire data and information from multiple, possibly heterogeneous sources,
  • Integration of information, tagging of information with semantic tags,
  • Create intellectual property (IP) with valued-added processing,
  • Protect IP products, processes and resources,
  • Share knowledge with partners,
  • Distribute IP products to customers and partners.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

slide19
XML
  • eXtensible Markup Language
    • Provides standard format for tagging semi-structured information.
    • Meta-language for representing other languages.
  • Vocabularies for documents
    • XML Document Type Definitions (DTDs)
    • XML Schema is proposed as successors to DTDs.
      • Provides richer grammar for the structure of elements,
      • Provides data typing,
      • Provides inclusion and derivation definitions, so that data elements can be reused.
    • Resource Description Format (RDF) is a model to describe meta-data, data about data.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

e business knowledge creation
E-Business Knowledge Creation

KM

XML

0101010101

0101010101

Generate Information

Information Integration

Indexing (XML Meta Tags)

Process & Manage

Information

  • Capture Information:
  • Federated Databases
  • Web Searching
  • Intelligent Agents
  • Knowledge Rovers
  • XML Messages
  • Email Messages

Knowledge Management

KM

Convert

To

Knowledge

Materialize

  • Extract New
  • Information:
  • Data Mining
  • Decision Support
  • AI
  • Data Warehousing

Risk

Management

XML

Public Domain & WWW

Publish & Share

Knowledge

Base

Push Publishing?

XML

Customers

Security

Concerns?

RosettaNet

SOAP

WIDL

ebXML

XML

Web Services

XML Role

Knowledge Management Role

XML

Suppliers & Business Partners

KM

E-Business Data Acquisition and Knowledge Creation with XML as the Enabler

Courtesy of Mr. Gus Jabbour

web services

Web Services

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

outline
Outline
  • Web Services Definition
  • Web Services versus Web Sites
  • Web Services Protocols and Standards
  • Conclusions

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

web services23
Web Services
  • Web services are Internet-based applications that fulfill a specific task or set of tasks, which can be combined with other Web services to maintain workflow or perform business transactions.
    • Airline, hotel and rental car reservation process,
    • Loan approval process
  • Users access Web services online & offline via PCs, cell phones, Personal Digital Assistants.
  • Programs can also access Web services directly.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

web services continued
Web Services (continued)
  • Web services communicate with each other:
    • Share information about their functions & roles in an application’s workflow,
    • Publish the inputs they require & outputs they generate,
    • The result is just-in-time integration of business applications.
  • Each self-contained business service becomes an application that will easily integrate with other services (from the same or different companies) to create a complete business process.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

web sites and web services

Business

Logic

Business

Logic

Database

Database

Web Service

Web Sites and Web Services

Web Site

HTTP

Web

Access

User

Interface

Internet

HTTP

Computer

Program

SOAP

Internet

SOAP

HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol

SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

travel web service portal

Business

Logic

Business

Logic

Business

Logic

Database

Database

Database

Hotel Service

Car Rental Service

Airline Service

Travel Web Service Portal

Travel Portal

Web Site

HTTP

Web

Access

User

Interface

Internet

HTTP

SOAP

SOAP

SOAP

SOAP

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

web services xml and metadata
Web Services, XML and Metadata

GetaLoan.com

Internet

Loan Insurance

Company

Delivery of Service

=

Approval Or Denial

Delivery of Service

=

Credit Verification

Online Loan Applicant

Credit Reporting

Service

XML

Server

XML

Server

Delivery of Service

=

Loan approval & procurement

Meta

Data

Universal

Business

Registry

Delivery of Service

=

Loan insurance approval

XML

Documents

XML

Server

XML

Server

Web Services

Meta Repository

(WSMR)

Financial

Institutions

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

web service standards
Web Service Standards
  • Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) 
    • http://www.w3.org/TR/SOAP/
  • Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
    • http://msdn.microsoft.com/xml/general/wsdl.asp
  • Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI)
    • http://www.uddi.org

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

simple object access protocol soap
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
  • SOAP is an XML-based messaging framework
    • Designed to exchange data over the Internet
    • Can send request, reply messages or entire documents.
    • Neutral with respect to Operating System.
  • SOAP and XML provide a means for two or more portals, marketplaces or trading partners to agree on common data exchange services for “exposing” services to the Web for creating distributed the “virtual enterprise.”

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

discovering soap services
Discovering SOAP Services
  • Enterprise A uses URL provided by Enterprise B to get list of published services.
  • Enterprise A downloads the XML schemas (using WSDL) describing services message formats.
  • Enterprise A formats and sends XML message via SOAP to Enterprise B
  • Enterprise B responds via SOAP, which A interprets using XML Schema.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

soap message format
SOAP Message Format
  • SOAP supports two basic XML message formats
    • Self-describing EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) and EDI (Electronic Data Interchange).
    • Remote procedure call (RPC) style interactions that model object method invocation and parameter passing.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

soap message format32
Envelope

Marks the start and end of a SOAP message.

Header (optional)

Used to include RPC style interaction.

Can contain no header or several headers.

Body

Contains the actual message or document being sent.

SOAP message elements are defined using schemas and qualified using namespaces.

Envelope

Header

Body

SOAP Message Format

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

soap envelope
SOAP Envelope
  • SOAP Envelope defines a framework for describing message contents and how to process it.
    • Rules for encoding the data transfer
    • Agree by downloading the same XML schema.
    • http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/
    • http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

soap header
SOAP Header
  • Each header must be defined within an associated XML schema,
  • Allow features such as security, transactions, and quality of service attributes to be specified.
  • Must be understood by both parties,
  • Allows consumers and publishers to negotiate agreement on support of a given header or a set of headers.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

soap body
SOAP Body
  • Contains application-defined XML data being exchanged in message.
    • Either a single, self-describing structure, or
    • Remote Procedure Call (RPC) interface with method name and typed parameters.
  • Next slide shows an example of a stock quote request and response.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

soap example
Request:

<SOAP-ENV: Envelope>

<SOAP-ENV: Body>

<m:GetLastTradePrice xmlns:m-”Some-URI”>

<symbol>MSFT</symbol>

</m: GetLastTradePrice>

</SOAP-ENV:Body>

</SOAP-ENV: Envelope>

Response:

<SOAP-ENV: Envelope>

<SOAP-ENV: Body>

<m:GetLastTradePriceResponse xmlns:m-”Some-URI”>

<Price>63.00</Price>

</m: GetLastTradePriceResponse>

</SOAP-ENV:Body>

</SOAP-ENV: Envelope>

SOAP Example

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

web services description language wsdl
Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
  • WSDL is a form of XML Schema to define the XML message, operation and protocol mapping of a web service accessed using SOAP or another XML protocol.
  • WSDL defines Web services as “end points” that operate on XML messages.
  • Both the messages and the operations on the messages are defined abstractly and then mapped to multiple physical implementations.
  • Current mappings include SOAP 1.1, HTTP GET/POST and MIME.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

wsdl specification
WSDL Specification

Definition List

  • Proxy Code
    • A definition of message types and operations in the abstract,
  • Binding Information
    • A definition that maps the abstract definitions onto concrete transports and network end points.
  • Service Definition
    • A definition that maps bindings to ports and includes extensibility, e.g., attributes or properties for quality of service agreements.
  • Proxy code:
  • Message type
  • Abstract interface (port type)
  • Binding information:
  • Transport
  • Port
  • Service definition:
  • Binding/port
  • Extensibility

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

iona s xml bus web services
IONA’s XML Bus Web Services
  • Dynamic WSDL Test Facility (several web services)
    • http://www.xmlbus.com:9010/WSDLClient/WSDLDynamicTestClient.html
  • WSDL Service Description
    • http://www.xmlbus.com:9010/xmlbus/container/Converter/ConverterService/ConverterPort

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

convert inches to millimeters
Convert Inches to Millimeters
  • XML Query

<SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"

xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"

xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">

<SOAP-ENV:Body SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/">

<m1:inchToMM xmlns:m1="urn:target-converter-service">

<param0 xsi:type="xsd:float">1.0</param0>

</m1:inchToMM>

</SOAP-ENV:Body>

</SOAP-ENV:Envelope>

  • XML Response

<SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"

xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"

xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">

<SOAP-ENV:Body SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/">

<m1:inchToMMResponse xmlns:m1="urn:target-converter-service">

<return xsi:type="xsd:float">25.4</return>

</m1:inchToMMResponse>

</SOAP-ENV:Body>

</SOAP-ENV:Envelope>

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

uddi and the protocol stack
UDDI and the Protocol Stack

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

uddi universal description discovery and integration
UDDI - Universal Description, Discovery and Integration
  • Goal is to enable the interoperability of web services
    • Standards-based specifications for service description and discovery
    • Shared operation of a business registry on the web
  • Partnership among industry and business leaders

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

how uddi v1 works

4.

Marketplaces, search engines, and business apps query the registry to discover services at other companies

2.

5.

BusinessRegistrations

Businesses populate the registry with

descriptions of the services they support

Business uses this data to facilitate easier integration with each other over the Web

3.

UBR assigns a programmatically unique identifier to each service and business registration

How UDDI v1 Works

1.

SW companies, standards bodies, and programmers populate the registry with

descriptions of different types of services

UDDI BusinessRegistry

Segrvice Type

Reistrations

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

white pages yellow pages
Business Name

Text Description

list of multi-language text strings

Contact info

names, phone numbers, fax numbers, web sites…

Known Identifiers

list of identifiers that a business may be known by - DUNS, Thomas, other

Business categories

Three standard taxonomies in V1

Industry: NAICS (Industry codes - US Govt.)

Product/Services: UN/SPSC (ECMA)

Location: Geographical taxonomy

White Pages Yellow Pages

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

green pages
Green Pages
  • Businesses describe how other businesses will “do e-commerce”:
    • Nested model
      • Business processes
      • Service descriptions
      • Binding information
    • Programming/platform/implementation agnostic
    • Services can also be categorized

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

service type registration
Service Type Registration
  • Pointer to the namespace where service type is described
    • What programmers use to understand how to use the service
  • Identifier for who published the service
  • Identifier for the service type registration
    • called a tModelKey
    • Used as a signature by web sites that implement those services

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

business registration
XML document

Created by end-user company

Can have multiple service listings

Can have multiple taxonomy listings

Contact

Contact

Phone

Address

Email

Phone

Address

Email

keyedReference

keyedReference

keyedReference

keyedReference

tModelKey

keyName

keyValue

tModelKey

keyName

keyValue

tModelKey

keyName

keyValue

tModelKey

keyName

keyValue

Business Registration

businessEntity

businessKey

name

URL

description

contacts

businessServices

identifierBag

categoryBag

businessService

businessService

serviceKey

tModelKey

Name

Description

BindingTemplates

Key

Name

Description

BindingTemplates

From www.uddi.org

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

example of a registration

Peter Smythe

businessEntity

872-6891

4281 King’s Blvd, Sydney, NSW

Peter@harbourmetals.co.au

TB993… Harbour Metals

www.harbourmetals.co.au

“Serving Inner Sydney Harbour for …

contacts

businessServices

identifierBag

categoryBag

businessService

businessService

23T701e54683nf…

Online catalog

“Website where you can …

BindingTemplates

Key

Name

Description

BindingTemplates

BindingTemplate

keyedReference

keyedReference

5E2D412E5-44EE-…

http://www.sydneynet/harbour…

tModelInstanceDetails

DFE-2B…

DUNS

45231

EE123…

NAICS

02417

tModelInstanceInfo

4453D6FC-223C-3ED0…

http://www.rosetta.net/catalogPIP

tModelKeys

Example of a Registration

From www.uddi.org

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

uddi and soap
UDDI and SOAP

UDDI RegistryNode

User

UDDISOAP Request

HTTPServer

SOAPProcessor

UDDISOAP Response

UDDIRegistry Service

B2B Directory

Create, View, Update, and Deleteregistrations

Implementation-neutral

From www.uddi.org

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

registry apis soap messages
Inquiry API

Find things

find_business

find_service

find_binding

find_tModel

Get Details about things

get_businessDetail

get_serviceDetail

get_bindingDetail

get_tModelDetail

Publishers API

Save things

save_business

save_service

save_binding

save_tModel

Delete things

delete_business

delete_service

delete_binding

delete_tModel

security…

get_authToken

discard_authToken

Registry APIs (SOAP Messages)

From www.uddi.org

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

uddi information model
UDDI Information Model

From www.uddi.org

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

web service discovery and interaction
Web Service Discovery and Interaction

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

e business standards
E-Business Standards
  • Electronic Business XML (ebXML)
    • http://www.ebxml.org/
      • Local Web Site
  • RosettaNet
    • http://www.rosettanet.org/
      • Local Partner Interface Processes

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

electronic business xml ebxml
Electronic Business XML (ebXML)
  • International initiative established by the United nations and OASIS to promote global standards to exchange business data.
  • Wants to promote a global e-business marketplace, regardless of geographic or political boundaries.
  • ebXML has several models and mappings:
    • Business Process and Information Model,
    • Model maps to XML documents,
    • Defines requirements for applications that process the documents and exchange them among trading partners.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

ebxml continued
ebXML (continued)
  • The ebXML architecture defines:
    • Business processes and their associated messages and content,
    • A registry and discovery mechanism for publishing business process sequences and related message exchanges,
    • Company profiles,
    • Trading partner agreements,
    • A uniform message transport layer which is mapped to SOAP with multipart MIME attachments.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

semantic web services

Semantic Web Services

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

semantic web principles
Semantic Web Principles
  • Everything is on the Web
    • People, places, and things in the physical world will have online representations identified by Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI).
  • Partial Information
    • The Web is unbounded, so learning is an ongoing activity.
  • Web of Trust
    • Applications must discover the truth of statements made on the Web.
  • Evolution
    • Semantic Web must be capable of evolving as human understanding expands.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

semantic web principles58
Semantic Web Principles
  • Minimalist Design
    • Make things simple and complex things possible.
  • Common Models
    • In order to express and understand statements from multiple sources, common models are needed to express concepts.
  • Use common standards and enabling technologies
    • XML, RDF (Resource Description Framework), Ontologies, e.g., DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML), OIL.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

semantic web layers
Semantic Web Layers
  • The layered Semantic Web will have successive layers of knowledge, reasoning, learning, and trust.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

rdf data model

p

S

O

RDF Data Model
  • The RDF data model is defined as follows:
    • There is a set of Resources.
    • There is a set of Literals.
    • There is a subset of Resources called Properties.
    • There is a set of Statements, each element of which is a triple of the form:
      • {pred, sub, obj}Where pred is a property (member of Properties),sub is resource (member of Resources) and obj is either a resource or a literal (member of Literals).

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

rdf specification
RDF Specification
  • Larry Kerschberg is the creator of the resource: http://mason.gmu.edu/~kersch/
  • The graph has the following form:

Creator

Larry

Kerschberg

http://mason.gmu.edu/~kersch

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

rdf specification62
RDF Specification

<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/">

<rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.w3.org/2001/08/rdf-test/">

<dc:creator>Art Barstow</dc:creator> <dc:creator>Dave Beckett</dc:creator>

<dc:publisher>

<rdf:Description>

<dc:title>World Wide Web Consortium</dc:title> <dc:source rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/"/> </rdf:Description>

</dc:publisher>

</rdf:Description>

</rdf:RDF>

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

resource metadata tagging
Resource Metadata Tagging
  • Metadata is data-about-data and is used to describe the attributes of a resource.
    • Metadata is used in service registration, search, discovery and dissemination.
    • These activities may be carried out by human end-users or their (human or automated) agents.
  • Metadata is needed in the Internet context to enhance precision of information retrieval.
  • Metadata may be embedded within a document (metatags) or they may be external to the document.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

metadata standards initiatives
Metadata Standards Initiatives
  • Dublin Core Metadata Initiative for Digital Libraries, Dublin Core is an international initiative hosted by OCLC
  • XML (eXtensible Markup Language)
  • W3C - RDF, (WWW Consortium) Resource Description Framework
  • W3C - Semantic Web,DAML+OIL.
  • Web Services (SOAP, WSDL, UDDI)
  • A metadata bibliography is available at:
    • http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/desire/overview/.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

content indexing and tagging of information resources
Content Indexing and Tagging of Information Resources
  • Research in automatic classification at OCLC includes the Scorpion Project for Dewey Decimal Classification.
  • Commercial products from Autonomy and Convera:
    • Use Bayesian Networks and Neural Networks to formulate concepts automatically, not just keyword extraction.
    • Use text mining to correlate related concepts found in heterogeneous documents.
  • Automatic tagging will help analysts to create knowledge and link back to original sources.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

dublin core dc metadata initiative
Dublin Core (DC) Metadata Initiative
  • Simplicity – the DC is intended to be usable by non-catalogers as well as resource description specialists.
  • Semantic Interoperability – diverse description models hinder sharing and understanding across disciplines.
  • International Consensus – participants are from all over the world.
  • Extensibility – may be extended to include more specialized structure and semantics.
  • Metadata Modularity on the Web – brings Digital Library perspective to encoding metadata on the WWW.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

dublin core metadata types
Dublin Core Metadata Types

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

dublin core metadata elements
Dublin Core Metadata Elements

From ISO/IEC 11179 standard:

  • Name - The label assigned to the data element.
  • Identifier - The unique identifier assigned to the data element
  • Version - The version of the data element (DC: 1.1).
  • Registration Authority - The entity authorized to register the data element (DC: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative).
  • Language - The language in which the data element is specified (DC: en).
  • Definition - A statement that clearly represents the concept and essential nature of the data element.
  • Obligation - Indicates if the data element is required to always or sometimes be present (contain a value) (DC: Optional).
  • Datatype - Indicates the type of data that can be represented in the value of the data element (DC: Character String).
  • Maximum Occurrence - Indicates any limit to the repeatability of the data element (DC: Unlimited).
  • Comment - A remark concerning the application of the data element.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

ontology
Ontology
  • Ontology is defined as the “science or study of being”, Oxford English Dictionary
  • Ontology building involves identifying the domain objects, their relationship to one another.
  • Semantic Web researchers consider an ontology to consist of:
    • A set of knowledge terms, which includes the vocabulary,
    • the semantic interconnections, and
    • some rules of inference and logic for some particular domain of discourse.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

taxonomy
Taxonomy
  • Hierarchical Collection of Terms
    • Used in E-Business Catalogs.
    • User by Search Engines such as Yahoo.
  • Search for “Chair” on Yahoo.
    • Results are given as hyperlinks with added information showing position in the taxonomy.
    • Yahoo Search Results for Chair.
    • Category information for #13, Chair Imports, Inc.
    • Business to Business Categories.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

intelligent thesaurus
Intelligent Thesaurus
  • Developed by Kerschberg and Weishar under DARPA’s Intelligent Integration of Information Program (I*3).
  • Uses the Knowledge/Data Model of Potter and Kerschberg
  • Allows rich terminology, with associated rules and heuristics associated with terms.
  • Can be used to improve search and query by providing broader terms and related terms; can also focus a query by using narrower terms.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

kdm specification of object
KDM Specification of Object

object-type ::=

OBJECT-TYPE: class-name HAS

[SUPERTYPES: // Generalization

class-name { , class-name};]

[SUBTYPES: // Specialization

class-name { , class-name} [HIDING function-list];]

[ATTRIBUTES: // Aggregation

{attribute-name: type-name

[WITH CONSTRAINT: constraint ] ; }+ ]

[MEMBERS: // Membership (Association)

{member-name: [SET OF | LIST OF] class-name

[INVERSE OF member-name [class-name)]]

[WITH CONSTRAINT: constraint ] ; }+ ]

[CONSTRAINTS: // Knowledge to enforce integrity

{ constraint; }+ ]

[HEURISTICS: // Knowledge to derive/infer information

{heuristic}+ ]

[METHODS: // Specifications of computations & behavior

{ method; }+ ]

END class-name;

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

thesaurus object specification
Thesaurus_Object Specification

OBJECT–TYPE THESAURUS_OBJECT HAS

OID: {System Defined}

SUPERTYPES: {Object–Type}

SUBTYPES: {Object–Type}

ATTRIBUTES:

DESCRIPTION: {String}

BROADER OBJECTS: {Object–Type}

NARROWER OBJECTS: {Object–Type}

SIMILAR OBJECTS: {Object–Type}

PREFERRED OBJECTS: {Object–Type}

KNOWN_AS: {SET OF Roles}

VIEWPOINTS: [[Global | FIM | Local | Ext]]

CONSTRAINTS: {SET OF Constraints}

HEURISTICS: {SET OF Heuristics}

METHODS: {SET OF Methods}

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

intelligent thesaurus meta schema
Intelligent Thesaurus Meta-Schema

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

darpa agent markup language and services
DARPA Agent Markup Language and Services
  • Based on XML and RDF
  • DAML Ontology
    • http://www.daml.org/2001/03/daml+oil-walkthru.html
    • Local Version
  • Sample Map Ontology
    • http://www.daml.org/2001/06/map/map-ont.daml
    • Local Version
  • Web Services Markup Language
    • http://www.daml.org/services/daml-s/2001/05/daml-s.html
    • Local Version

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

weather web services
Weather Web Services
  • A fishing captain whose ship is in distress uses his web-enable phone to go to a geographical server site.
    • Query: “Get me a satellite photo of my region of the Atlantic.”
    • Approach: Server uses GPS information from phone to identify region in question, launches agents to find web services.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

weather web services continued
Weather Web Services (continued)
  • Response: Agents search for services and respond with the following choices:
    • A satellite image taken yesterday at 10am is available via a URL,
    • New satellite image will be taken today at 10am, and costs $100, please provide credit card number.
    • In an emergency situation, a Coast Guard helicopter can be summoned for pickup; please provide credit card information.
    • In high-altitude observer can be sent to your location in 13 hours. You will need to provide US Military Authorization, a valid military code unit, and commanding officer name.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

web service on semantic web
Web Service on Semantic Web

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Future information systems will rely on agents for resource discovery, negotiation, configuration and deployment.
  • As more and more devices become part of the “always-on” Internet, they will communicate and transact with each other in peer-to-peer fashion.
  • Web Services are the next generation of e-business services for rapid deployment of focused services, and for configuration of “virtual enterprises.”
  • Semantic Web Services will allow intelligent registration, search, discovery, and use of trusted, reliable and quality-of-service aware services.
  • XML and its family of protocols XML Schema, RDF, SOAP, UDDI, WSDL, DAML-OIL, will enable this technology.

2001 © Larry Kerschberg.