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“the New testament lies hidden in the Old and the Old testament is unveiled in the New” (ccc 129). Old Testament Types of Mary form the biblical basis for Catholic Marian beliefs. Persons in the OT prefigured, foreshadowed, anticipated, and symbolized persons and events in the NT.

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old testament types of mary form the biblical basis for catholic marian beliefs

“the New testament lies hidden in the Old and the Old testament is unveiled in the New”

(ccc 129)

Old Testament Types of Mary form the biblical basis for Catholic Marian beliefs.

Persons in the OT prefigured,

foreshadowed, anticipated, and symbolized persons and events in the NT.

The OT prepared the way for the NT

old testament types of mary
Old Testament Types of Mary

To fully understand the OT it must be read in terms of “types”

(this is referred to as Typology)

A “type” is an OT prophetic foreshadowing of its NT counterpart

OT persons and events are called “types” of the NT persons and events they prefigure.

Reading OT scripture in a typological sense reveals many NT doctrines,

including Mary’s privileges, in the OT

slide3

Jn 3:14:

Bronze serpent is Christ crucified

Mt 12:40:

Jonah is Christ in the tomb

The typological sense

In OT persons and events,

we come to see doctrines that are made more explicit in the NT gospel

1 Cor 10:4:

The rock is Christ

Rm 5:14:

Adam is a type of Christ

1 Pt 3:19-21:

Flood is Baptism

slide4
In order to be sure of the typical sense,
  • it must be revealed,
  • it must come down to us through Scripture or Apostolic Tradition.

Individual pious writers have developed copious analogies between certain data of the Old Testament and corresponding data of the New; however ingenious these developments may be,

they do not prove that God really intended to convey the corresponding truths in the inspired text of the Old Testament.

slide5
On the other hand,

it must be kept in mind that not all truths contained in either Scripture or Tradition have been explicitly proposed to the faithful as matters of belief by the explicit definition of the Church.

According to the principle

"Lex orandi est lex credenti"

we must treat at least with reverence the numberless suggestions contained in the official prayers and liturgies of the Church.

In this sense we must regard many of the titles bestowed on Our Blessed Lady in her litany and in the “Ave Maria Stella”.

slide6
The Antiphons and Responses

found in the Offices

recited on the various feasts of

Our Blessed Lady

suggest a number of types of Mary

that hardly could have been brought so vividly to the notice of the Church’s ministers in any other way.

slide7
The third antiphon of Lauds

of the Feast of the Circumcision sees in

"the bush that was not burnt"

(Exodus 3:2)

a figure of Mary conceiving her Son without the loss of her virginity.

slide8

a type of Mary receiving in her womb the Word Incarnate.

The second antiphon of Lauds of the same Office sees in Gideon’s fleece wet with dew while all the ground beside had remained dry

(Judges 6:37-38)

slide9
The Office of the Blessed Virgin applies to Mary many passages concerning the spouse in the Canticle of Canticles

and also concerning Wisdom in the Book of Proverbs, 8:22-31.

The application to Mary of a

"garden enclosed,

a fountain sealed up"

in Canticles 4:12

is only a particular instance of what has been said above.

Sarah, Deborah, Judith, and Esther are variously used as figures of Mary.

slide10
The Ark of the Covenant,

over which the presence of God manifested itself, is used as the figure of Mary carrying God Incarnate within her womb.

slide11
Eve, the mother of all the living

(Genesis 3:20),

is considered as a type of Mary

who is the mother of all the living in the order of grace.

slide12
There are three major OT

types of Mary

Eve

Ark of the Covenant

Queen Mother

These three “types” of Mary support all our Marian Beliefs.

mary as second eve
Mary as Second Eve

The early Church Fathers realized that individual players in the Fall of man had NT counterparts

  • The devil a fallen angel brought the words of death to Eve
  • Eve our mother in the flesh, disobeyed God and cooperated greatly in Adam’s sin, which caused the fall of the human race
  • The angel Gabriel brought the words of life to Mary
  • Mary was Jesus mother and perfect disciple, who obeyed God and contributed greatly to Christ’s redemptive mission.

The Fathers made the obvious connection:

as Christ is the new Adam (1 Cor 15:45), Mary is the new Eve.

slide14
After the fall Genesis 3:15 prophecies a woman and her son who will be at total enmity with the serpent and his descendents.

The woman’s son will crush the serpent’s head.

Since the man who crushes the serpents head is obviously Jesus, the woman must be Mary

Genesis 3:15-17

Describes two teams

The fall team – Adam and Eve

The redemption team – Jesus and Mary

slide15

The early Church Fathers including St Justin and St. Irenaeus were quick to realize this:

  • The human race fell through Adam but Eve’s role was crucial
  • Jesus redeemed the human race but Mary’s role was likewise crucial.

Sacred Scripture continually shows Jesus and Mary together in the pivotal events of salvation

mary as second eve16
Mary as Second Eve
  • Jdg 4:17-22 Jael drives a tent peg through the skull of the Canaanite general
  • Jdg 9:50-55 describes a woman who drops a millstone on the head of tyrannical King Abimelech, fracturing his skull
  • Judith 12-13 delivers the Jewish people from the Assyrian army by beheading its commander, Holofernes, with his own sword as he slept.
  • Jdg 5:24 Sisera celebrates her: “Most blessed of women be Jael”
  • Judith 13:18 Judith’s heroism is celebrated with the words: “you areblessed by the Most High God above all women on earth; and blesswed be the Lord God…who had guided you to strile the head of the leader of our enemies.

Jesus and Mary Together Crush Satan’s head

The OT describes women (types of Mary) who crush Israel’s enemies (types of Satan)

The praises of Jael and Judith anticipate Elizabeth’s praise of Mary

Lk 1:42.

Blessed are you among women and blessed is the fruit of your womb

mary as second eve17
Mary as Second Eve

Jesus definitively crushed Satan’s head on Calvary.

Calvary (Golgotha) means skull-place.

Satan intends to strike a lethal blow through the cross

(“you strike at his heel”).

Instead Satan suffered the mortal wound

(“he will strike at your head”)

Jesus destroyed the power of sin and death.

“Dying you destroyed our death

rising you restored our life,

Lord Jesus come in glory.”

mary as second eve18
Mary as Second Eve

Mary was at Christ’s side on Calvary. Jesus refers to her not as mother but as woman the new Eve.

  • Mary is the woman of Gn 3:15
  • The woman of Jn 2 who launched Jesus’ ministry at Cana
  • The woman at the foot of the cross in Jn 19
  • And the woman of Rev 12 who fights against Satan with Jesus until the end.

The new Adam and the New Eve are on the same victorious team.

mary as the new ark of the covenant
Mary as the New Ark of the Covenant

The Ark was the holiest object in the OT

It was sacred because it carried the stone tablets of the Law that God gave Moses on Mount Sinai

God gave meticulous instructions for constructing the Ark (Ex 25)

  • Made of indestructible acacia wood
  • Plated inside and outside with pure gold
  • Kept free from impurity and profanation

God struck Uzziah dead because he dared to touch the Ark

(2 Sam 6:6-7)

mary as the new ark of the covenant20
Mary as the New Ark of the Covenant
  • The Ark contained the Tables of the Law
  • The Ark bore the Law
  • The Ark carried the written Word of God
  • The Ark shown forth with the purest gold
  • The gold which adorned the Ark was mined on earth
  • Mary’s womb contained the author of the Law
  • Mary bore the Gospel
  • Mary gave us the living Word of God Jesus
  • Mary shown forth inward and outward with the purity of virginity
  • The gold which Mary shone forth was mined in heaven

St. Ambrose details several ways in which the Ark is a type of Mary.

(Ex 26:33, 40:20)

This typology forms the basis for doctrines like the Assumption which are not taught explicitly in scripture but are taught implicitly through typology.

slide21

Mary as the NT Queen MotherThe OT kings clearly prefigured Christ,the NT King of kings (Rev 19:16)Jesus in his humanity descended from King David

The Kings of Judah of David’s line especially prefigured Jesus’ kingship

“the Lord God will give him [Jesus] the throne of His father David.”

(Lk 1:32)

The wife of the king of Judah was not the queen.

The queen was the king’s mother (Queen Mother)

She had great honor and authority in the kingdom

(1 Kings 2:19-20)

mary as the nt queen mother
Mary as the NT Queen Mother

Solomon by honoring his mother established an institution that lasted 400 years, as long as the kings of Judah.

The Queen mother served as the kings confidant and advisor.

She had an official position;

she had to be deposed in order to be removed.

(1 Kings 15:13)

The Jewish concept of a Davidic king would have naturally included the king on his throne with the queen mother at his right hand.

slide23
The Holy Spirit was preparing the way for Mary.

Jesus, the NT Davidic King,

does not have a wife.

His mother would be the NT queen

Rev 11-12 describes:

A woman gives birth to a son who will “rule all the nations”(12:5)

Jesus is a new Solomon

just as Solomon ruled over other kings

(2 Chronicles 9:23-26)

Jesus is the

“King of kings and Lord of lords”

(Rev 19:16)

Any king of the house of David would be expected to have a queen mother.

slide24

Mary as the NT Queen MotherThe OT Kings clearly prefigured Christ,The NT King of kings (Rev 19:16)Jesus in his humanity descended from King DavidThe Kings of Judah of David’s line especially prefigured Jesus’ kingship

“the Lord God will give him [Jesus] the throne of His father David.”

(Lk 1:32)

The wife of the king of Judah was not the queen.

The queen was the king’s mother (Queen Mother)

mary mother of god
Mary Mother of God

Many non-catholics believe that honoring Mary takes away from the honor due Jesus

“This most blessed of women, the mother of Jesus, is thus made His chief rival and competitor for the loyalty and devotion of the human heart.”

(Lorraine Boettner, Presbyterian author of Roman Catholicism)

  • Mary and Jesus are not in competition, but are different members of the same team.
  • Mary is the first and best Christian, who only leads us closer to her Son, Jesus.
  • Mary’s privileges come exclusively from God and reflect His love and mercy.
  • Mary’s role in salvation is taught from Genesis to Revelation and she is by God’s design, the spiritual mother of all Christians.