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New Piper Aircraft Jet. The following is an example of how Surfaces can be used to analyze an aircraft from little more than a low quality drawing copied from a brochure. The following is for demonstration purposes only and may not represent actual data. What will be Covered….

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new piper aircraft jet

New Piper Aircraft Jet

The following is an example of how Surfaces can be used to analyze an aircraft from little more than a low quality drawing copied from a brochure.

The following is for demonstration purposes only and may not represent actual data.

what will be covered

What will be Covered…

Why should you care?

What is SURFACES?

Model Creation

Validation Samples

Examples of Aerodynamic Analysis

Examples of Aerodynamic Loads

Examples of Stability and Control

Approximate length – 1 hour.

why should you care

Why should you care?

Fast and reliable estimation of aerodynamic properties.

Fast and reliable estimation of stability derivatives.

Fast and reliable estimation of aerodynamic loads.

Fast “what if” evaluation of configurations (T-tail versus Conventional tail versus H-tail versus…).

Ideal for sensitivity studies.

Tailoring of stall progression.

Control effectiveness studies.

and more…

what is surfaces

What is SURFACES?

Interactive environment that allows the user to design and analyze aircraft geometries.

SURFACES has a multi-document interface.

In SURFACES you do everything in a single program; pre-process, solve, and post-process.

SURACES uses two kind of documents; a Surfaces Worksheet and an Aircraft Datasheet.

what is surfaces5

What is SURFACES?

Interactive environment that allows the user to design and analyze aircraft geometries.

SURFACES has a multi-document interface.

In SURFACES you do everything in a single program; pre-process, solve, and post-process.

SURACES uses two kind of documents; a Surfaces Worksheet and an Aircraft Datasheet.

A SURFACES Worksheet is your digital wind tunnel.

A SURFACES Aircraft Datasheet is where stability and control and performance analysis takes place.

what is surfaces6

What is SURFACES?

Model Details

what is surfaces7

What is SURFACES?

Model Details

what is surfaces8

What is SURFACES?

Movable control surfaces

Forces and Moments can be applied using equations

Model Details

Movable flaps

flow solver

Flow Solver

Three dimensional Vortex-Lattice Method is used to determine the flow field.

Models can be symmetric as well as asymmetric.

Boundary conditions allow AOA and AOY.

Three compressibility models (Prandtl-Glauert, Karman-Tsien, Laitone)

Three induced drag models (surface integration, standard Cdo+k∙CL², and Prandtl-Betz).

Program can take advantage of multiple processors on the motherboard and solve more than one model simultaneously.

validation sample 1

Validation Sample 1

Pressure distribution over a flat plate.

validation sample 9

Validation Sample 9

NACA R-1208 – Comparison to Wind Tunnel Tests

Highly swept-back tapered wings are a good test for any code.

validation sample 912

Validation Sample 9

NACA R-1208 – Results from SURFACES

examples of aerodynamic analysis15

Examples of Aerodynamic Analysis

  • Airfoils and airfoil properties
  • CG Envelope
  • Gross Weight / Inertias
  • True Geometry in many areas
  • Wing washout
  • Wing dihedral
  • Aileron and elevator geometry
  • FAA Design speeds
  • Winglet geometry
  • FJ44 Thrust properties
  • Ram drag point location
  • Flap definition

What We Don’t Know about the Piperjet

examples of stability and control

Examples of Stability and Control

Angle-of-Attack Derivatives

examples of stability and control17

Examples of Stability and Control

Angle-of-Yaw Derivatives

examples of aerodynamic analysis18

Examples of Aerodynamic Analysis

Stall Progression

At S-L, 5000 lbs, 75 KEAS, Flaps UP, no yaw.

examples of aerodynamic analysis19

Examples of Aerodynamic Analysis

atrim = 5.37°

detrim = -17.3°

Compliance with FAR 23.77(c) at Forward CG

At S-L, 5500 lbs, CG at 20% MAC, VREF=79 KEAS

examples of aerodynamic analysis20

Examples of Aerodynamic Analysis

Minimum section lift coefficient,

CL2D = -1.003

Compliance with FAR 23.77(c) at Forward CG

At S-L, 5500 lbs, CG at 20% MAC, VREF=79 KEAS

conclusions
Conclusions
  • SURFACES
    • Model Creation
    • Flow Solver
    • Validation Samples
  • The Piper Jet
    • Examples of Aerodynamic Analysis
    • Examples of Aerodynamic Loads
    • Examples of Stability and Control
the end
The End
  • Feedback
    • Questions
    • Comments
validation sample 5

Validation Sample 5

Cessna 172 - Comparison to Flight Test results.

When compared to 3 other VL codes and the panel code CMARC, SURFACES scores highest when determining stability derivatives.

examples of aerodynamic analysis24

Examples of Aerodynamic Analysis

Trim Drag in Cruise

At 25000 ft, at 5500 lbs, 350 KTAS, CDo= 0.020, Prandtl-Glauert compressibility

examples of aerodynamic load analysis

Examples of Aerodynamic Load Analysis

Shear Diagram at VA

At S-L, 6000 lbs, CG at 20% MAC, VA= 152 KEAS

examples of aerodynamic load analysis26

Examples of Aerodynamic Load Analysis

Moment Diagram at VA

At S-L, 6000 lbs, CG at 20% MAC, VA= 152 KEAS

examples of aerodynamic load analysis27

Examples of Aerodynamic Load Analysis

Torsion Diagram at VA

At S-L, 6000 lbs, CG at 20% MAC, VA= 152 KEAS

examples of aerodynamic analysis28

Examples of Aerodynamic Analysis

Flow Visualization - Streamlines

sweep scripts

Sweep Scripts

SURFACES can perform sweeps, during which selected parameters can be modified.

AOA, AOY, p∙b/(2V), and others can be varied and studied.

Points can even be moved during a sweep

sweep scripts30

Sweep Scripts

Once a sweep script is completed, are displayed in a tabular format,…

sweep scripts31

Sweep Scripts

…or a graph, in which any parameter can be plotted against each other.

This allows the user to extract relationships as mathematical expressions.

sweep scripts32

Sweep Scripts

From time to time, many sweeps may have to be created.

You can set up batch processing, which will handle the processing automatically.

This allows the program to be run overnight or over a weekend.