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Eco-friendly Planning for Zoos. Bernard Harrison Principle Partner - Creativity & Design Bernard Harrison & Friends Ltd. What this Talk is all about …. The raison d'être of zoos is to change attitudes & set examples for the visiting public on conservation

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eco friendly planning for zoos

Eco-friendly Planning for Zoos

Bernard Harrison

Principle Partner - Creativity & Design

Bernard Harrison & Friends Ltd

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

what this talk is all about
What this Talk is all about …
  • The raison d'être of zoos is to change attitudes & set examples for the visiting public on conservation
  • Besides wildlife conservation this should include environmental conservation

Global warming

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

what this talk is all about3
What this Talk is all about …
  • The best ways to demonstrate this is to plan, design & build everything in a zoo to be eco-friendly & sustainable
  • And offer our guests examples of how to live sustainably

Recycled tin can lamp

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

the outline
The Outline
  • Elaborating on SEAZA’s 8-Point Action Plan for Success
  • To achieve eco-friendly status:
    • Ensure the planners understand & buy-into the eco-friendly concept
    • Follow principles of eco-architecture & use recyclable materials from sustainable sources

Coke can car

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

the outline5
The Outline
  • Practice water harvesting, storage & recycling
  • Use & showcase alternative sources of energy
  • Understand the Clean Development Mechanism

Baby-scorpion

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

the buzz word

The Buzz Word

Global Warming

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

it s not only about melting ice caps
It’s not only about melting ice caps …

1979

2003

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

global warming
Global Warming
  • Reduced polar ice - raises the sea level
  • Most vulnerable will be the poor countries - most affected by floods, droughts & storms
  • Singapore is studying 4m high dyke system

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

an inconvenient truth
An Inconvenient Truth

It took Al Gore to tell the world

Why didn’t the zoo world do it first?

Its our business!!

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

desertification
Desertification

Desert ecosystems are the only ecosystem that are increasing in size

Global Warming?

Drought in the Senegal

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

earth s biocapacity
Earth’s Biocapacity
  • Global Ecological Footprint exceeds the Biocapacity by 21%
  • Thus, we are spending Nature’s Capital faster than it can be regenerated

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

developed world must adopt new models
Developed world must adopt new models

Methane, produced by cows burping & farting, has a global warming potential which is 21 times greater than carbon dioxide

Globalization means everyone wants western standards of living

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

should we promote vegetarianism
Should we promote vegetarianism?

Poverty is one of the most serious

causes of environmental destruction

Paris Hilton eating fast food

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

the stern report
The Stern Report …
  • Economic impacts of climate change have shaken world political & industrial leaders
  • Globally cities - have inadequate & unsustainable infrastructure to meet growing populations

Sir Nicholas Stern - 2006

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

we now live in cities which are totally unnatural
We now live in cities……. which are totally unnatural

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

cities are unnatural
Cities are Unnatural
  • 50% of 5.6 billion live in cities
  • 326 cities - over 1m
  • 19 mega cities - over 10m

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

cities are unnatural17
Cities are Unnatural

Need concentrations of:

  • Food
  • Water
  • Energy

Lagos, Nigeria

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

cities are unnatural18
Cities are Unnatural

Need to dispose of:

  • Garbage
  • Sewerage
  • Grey water
  • Air pollutants

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

cities are unnatural19
Cities are Unnatural
  • Cover 2% of earth’s surface
  • Account for:
    • 78% carbon emissions
    • 60% residence water waste
    • 76% wood for industry

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

eco friendly developments in our zoos
Eco-friendly developments in our zoos

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

eco architecture
Eco-architecture

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

eco architecture22
Eco-architecture
  • Bioclimatic & sustainable architecture:
    • Green roof buildings
    • Orientation of buildings to maximize use of natural light & natural wind ventilation

Twycross Zoo -

Entrance complex

with green roof

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

natural cooling sources
Natural Cooling Sources
  • Tree planting to reduce heat retention of buildings
  • Air movement is the most important element of passive cooling
  • Reduces need for airconditioning & fans

Passive shade

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

natural cooling sources24
Natural Cooling Sources

Design planting to funnel breezes through the building

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

eco efficient tropical house
Eco-efficient Tropical House

Good cross ventilation

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

passive climate control
Air is drawn over a lake outside, which cools the buildingPassive Climate Control

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

building materials
Building Materials
  • Selection of building materials - especially timber - from sustainable sources, which are recycled or can be recycled
  • Energy efficient materials
  • Use of indigenous regional architecture using tried & tested designs & materials

Artificial timber boardwalk

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

international audits
International Audits
  • Follow LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) ratings for design, construction, and operation of green buildings
  • And ISO 1402 (International Organization of Standardization) for energy conservation

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

eco landscape
Eco-landscape

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

eco landscape30
Eco-landscape
  • Landscape provides functions & production as well as aesthetic qualities
  • Landscape supports biological climate control
  • Soften impact of hard landscape
  • Provides space for food production

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

slide31

Pekarangan - Edible Landscapes

Yield calories

m2/yr

450

500

300

45

15

Vertical Strata

Over 10m

5-10m

2-5m

1-2m

0-1m

A: (over 10m)Coconut, albizia

B:(5-10m) fruit trees: soursop, jackfruit, pisitam, guava, mountain apple, cloves, breadfruit, avocado, mango, mangosteen, rambutan

C: (2-5m)banana, papaya, small fruit trees (belimbil, starfruit) salek, coffee, ipil ipil

D:(1-2m)cassava, Xanthosoma, arrowroot, gembili (D.esculenta) cardamom, galangal

E:(0-1m)starch foods, vegetables & spices e.g. sweet potato, taro, chilli, eggplant tumeric

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

organic pest control
Organic Pest Control
  • Natural pest management
  • Creative non-pesticide solutions

Ladybird Preying mantis

Ducks in paddy fields

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

water conservation
Water Conservation

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

water
Water
  • Saving & management of water through drainage systems:
    • Collection - take advantage of natural run-off
    • Purification
    • Storage
    • Use as wildlife refuges
    • Aquaculture

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

knowing the site conditions
Knowing the Site Conditions

Like wastewater & sewerage treatment with low-cost constructed & natural wetlands

Allows for early environmental design solutions

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

putrajaya wetlands
Putrajaya Wetlands

Then turning wetlands into wildlife sanctuaries

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

compost toilets
Compost Toilets!

Dry & wet systems

Hmmmmm…

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

compost toilets38
Compost Toilets!

Smell is reduced considerably

Worms create excellent compost

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

waterless urinals
Waterless Urinals
  • Urine passes through floating, lighter weight liquid which traps & seals it, preventing odour

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

alternative energy systems
Alternative Energy Systems

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

solar or photovoltaic systems pv
Solar or Photovoltaic Systems (PV)

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

photovoltaic systems
Photovoltaic Systems

Integration of PV panels into the construction initially reduces costs considerably

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

photovoltics for drinking water
A small electric pump can lift 30 m³ water per day from 5m depth Photovoltics for Drinking Water

PV cells powering a small electric pump

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

all sorts of practical applications
All sorts of practical applications …

Thin-film solar cell bikini powering an MP3 player

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

hydro power
Hydro-Power

3 Gorges dam

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

environmental impact
Environmental Impact
  • Hydro power presently produces 90% of all power from renewable energy sources
  • The problem is the environmental impact

3 Gorges dam

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

small hydro electric energy
Small Hydro-electric Energy
  • Small-scale hydroelectric facilities do not require building expensive facilities

Can provide power for 800 people

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

micro hydroelectric energy
Micro Hydroelectric Energy
  • Require minor civil engineering works - reducing costs & environmental impact

Micro hydroelectric turbine

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

biogas biofuel
Biogas & Biofuel

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

biogas
Biogas
  • Bio-methanization is the fermentation of organic matter into clean burning methane & carbon dioxide

Indian kitchen using biogas

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

biogas51
Biogas

Uses:

  • zoo sewerage sludge
  • municipal solid waste
  • agricultural or biodegradable waste

This biogas digester will convert

animal dung and waste into biogas

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

bio fuels
Bio-Fuels

Used Cooking Oil from main kitchen (up to 1,000 meals/day)

Bio-fuel/diesel blending facility

Cleaner fuel for zoo vehicles

Biodiesel made by combining alcohol with vegetable oil or recycled cooking greases

Can be used as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

wind systems
Wind Systems

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

small wind systems
Small Wind Systems
  • Used by small business & householders

Small wind turbine

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

micro wind systems
Micro Wind Systems
  • Domestic wind turbine normally on a mast
  • Can be mounted on a zoo building

Micro wind turbine mounted on house

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

hybrids applications
Hybrids Applications
  • Successful examples of hybrid systems :
    • PV/wind
    • PV/biogas
  • PV & wind hybrid

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

the clean development mechanism cdm
The Clean Development MechanismCDM

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

the kyoto protocol
The Kyoto Protocol
  • Agreed in 1997 & a binding international law in 2005
  • Covers 160 countries for global greenhouse gas emissions
  • Australia & USA have not ratified
  • Requires each industrialized country to set a target to control greenhouse pollution

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

the clean development mechanism
The Clean Development Mechanism
  • The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has established a regulatory framework for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

carbon trading
Carbon Trading
  • A developed country can buy Certified Emissions Reduction (CER) certificates
  • The CER sale will cover the cost of projects such as rural electrification projects in developing countries

Installing photovoltaic panel in Ethiopia

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

carbon trading61
Carbon Trading
  • The developed countries uses the CERs to offset their carbon footprint
  • Eventually, planting forests will be acceptable for CERs

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

carbon trading market
Carbon Trading Market

“Managing emissions has become one of the fastest-growing specialties in financial services…

Their goal is a slice of a market

now worth about $30 billion

and that could grow to $1 trillion within a decade”

New York Times - 6th July 2007

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

the return to sustainability
The Return to Sustainability

Future developments should maintain harmony with nature & their eco-systems

That’s the Moral reason to plan for sustainability

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

a call for action
A Call For Action!

If our visitors knew all these things …

They might start voicing their concerns to their Governments …

So why don’t you tell them?

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

slide65
For one lonely voice can do little

But many voices together can move mountains

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007

thank you
Thank You

BERNARD HARRISON AND FRIENDS LTD SEAZA Conference Kuala Lumpur - Malaysia 2007