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Documenting Sources: Using APA Format. A workshop by the Tiffin University Learning Center. Why use APA Format?. Easily cross reference sources Consistent formats help with the writing process Gives credit to those who deserve it Protects yourself against plagiarism.

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documenting sources using apa format

Documenting Sources: Using APA Format

A workshop by the Tiffin University Learning Center

why use apa format
Why use APA Format?
  • Easily cross reference sources
  • Consistent formats help with the writing process
  • Gives credit to those who deserve it
  • Protects yourself against plagiarism
where can you find apa format
Where can you find APA format?
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed.
  • www.apastyle.org
  • Keys for Writers 4th ed. by Ann Raimes
  • Your professor may require specific guidelines, so make sure you ask your professors!
four main concerns of apa style
Four main concerns of APA style
  • In-text citations
  • Cover page
  • Abstract
  • Reference page
what are in text citations
What are in-text citations?
  • Information provided to the reader in order to briefly identify the source later on in your reference page.
  • Typically author’s last name, year, and page(s) the information is from; all in parentheses
  • For example: A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11).
when should you use in text citations
When should you use in-text citations?
  • When quoting ANY words that are not your own
    • Quoting can mean using quotation marks, OR repeating another source word for word
  • When summarizing facts or ideas
    • Take ideas from another source, but using your own words, STILL needs to be cited
  • When paraphrasing a source
in text citation exception
In-text citation exception
  • In-text citations typically follow the quote; however, there are some exceptions.
  • Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11).
other in text citations
Other in-text citations
  • Two or more works in the same parentheses:
    • (Caruth, 1996; Fussell, 1975; Showalter, 1997).
  • Work with six or more authors.
    • (Smith et al., 1998).
  • No author, use abbreviated title:
    • Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers”
    • Citation: (“California”, 1999).
  • Reference to a website: use HTML
    • (www.purdue.edu).
cover page
Cover page
  • Papers written in APA style format REQUIRE a cover page.
  • Cover pages include a running head, page header and number, paper title, author, and affiliation for sure. Some papers require course number, professor’s name, and due date as well.
  • Once again, ask your professor to see what he or she may require
what is a running head
What is a running head?
  • An abbreviated title
  • Flush against the upper left hand corner of the cover page, after the page header and page number
  • Typed in all upper case letters
what is an abstract
What is an abstract?
  • An abstract summarizes the entire paper to no more than one paragraph in length.
  • Must be at least half the page
  • Follows the cover page, and prior to the first page of actual writing
  • Has the word “Abstract” typed at the top center of the page
  • Can have quotes and in-text citations
  • Typically on its own page
reference page
Reference Page
  • A list of every source that you use in your paper
  • Reference page allows your reader to look up and retrieve any source you used
  • EVERY source cited in the paper MUST be in the reference page
  • MUST be in alphabetical order
  • HANGING INDENTS!
book with one author
Book with one author
  • Author’s last name, Author’s first initial. (year). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Page number(s).
  • Example:
    • Wilson, E. O. (1994). Naturalist. Washington: Island Press, 66-79.
  • REMEMBER HANGING INDENT!
book with one author group example
Book with one author group example
  • Author: Jacob Smith
  • Year: 2003
  • Title: On the nature of the psyche
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • Place of publication: Urbana
  • Page Numbers: 92-97
answer 1
Answer # 1
  • Smith, J. (2003). On the nature of the psyche. Urbana: Princeton University Press, 92-97.
book with two or more authors
Book with two or more authors
  • Authors last names, first initials. (year). Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, page numbers.
  • Example:
    • Jordan, J. V., Kaplan, A. G., Miller, J. B., Stiver, I. P., & Surrey, J.L. (1991). Women’s growth in connection: Writings from the Stone Center. New York: Guilford Press, p.32.
  • REMEMBER HANGING INDENT!
book with two or more authors group example
Book with two or more authors group example
  • Authors: Chase Crowning, Amber Trent, Matthew Sane, Alan Steve Ross
  • Year: 1978
  • Title: The handbook of artificial intelligence
  • Place of Publication: London, England
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Page numbers: 128,150, 211-234
answer 2
Answer # 2
  • Crowning, C., Trent, A., Sane, M. & Ross, A. S. (1978). The handbook of artificial intelligence. London, England: Addison-Wesley, 128, 150, 211-234.
article in a scholarly journal
Article in a scholarly journal
  • Author’s last name, first initials. (year, month). Title. Journal Title, volume number(issue number), page numbers.
  • Example:
    • Kanazawa, S. & Still, M. C. (2000, December). Teaching may be hazardous to your marriage. Evolution and Human Behavior, 2(1), 185-190.
  • REMEMBER HANGING INDENT!
article in a scholarly journal group example
Article in a scholarly journal group example
  • Author: Richard Ginat
  • Year: October 2000
  • Title: The Soviet Union and the Syrian Ba’th regime: From hesitation to rapprochement.
  • Journal Title: Middle Eastern Studies
  • Volume Number: 36
  • Issue Number: 2
  • Page Numbers: 150-171
answer 3
Answer # 3
  • Ginat, R. (2000, October). The Soviet Union and the Syrian Ba’th regime: From hesitation to rapprochement. Middle Eastern Studies, 36(2), 150-171.
article in a magazine
Article in a magazine
  • Author’s last name, first initials. (year, month day). Article Title. Magazine Title, volume number, page numbers.
  • Example:
    • Levy, S. (2003, April 21). The killer browser. Newsweek, 141, 6-12.
  • REMEMBER HANGING INDENT!
article in a magazine group example
Article in a magazine group example
  • Author: Kurt Miller
  • Year: August 16, 2000
  • Article Title: The Victorian Achievement
  • Magazine Title: Time
  • Volume number: 13
  • Page numbers: 23-31
answer 4
Answer # 4
  • Miller, K. (2000, August 16). The Victorian Achievement, Time, 13, 23-31.
work in an electronic database
Work in an electronic database
  • Author’s last name, first initials. (Year). Article title. Journal title, Volume number, page numbers. Retrieved date, from database title: URL
  • Example:
    • Goldstein, B.S.C., & Harris, K. C. (2000). Consultant practices in tow heterogeneous Latino schools. The School Psychology Review, 29, 368-377. Retrieved June 4, 2003, from WilsonWeb Education Full Text database: http://www.wilsonwebeducation.org
work in an electronic database group example
Work in an electronic database group example
  • Author: Nathan Alexander
  • Year: 2006
  • Article Title: No nuke blackmail
  • Journal: Natural History
  • Volume Number: 12
  • Page numbers: 20-25
  • Retrieved date: June 12, 2007
  • Database title: APA Learning Technologies Journals
  • URL: www.apa.org/journals/NH/500NH.html
answer 5
Answer # 5
  • Alexander, N. (2006). No nuke blackmail. Natural History, 12, 20-25. Retrieved June 12, 2007, from APA Learning Technologies Journals: www.apa.org/journals/NH/500NH.html
newspaper article retrieved from database or web site
Newspaper article retrieved from database or Web site
  • Author’s last name, first initials. (Year, Month day). Article title. Newspaper title. Retrieved date, from database title: URL
  • Example:
    • Liptak, A. (2003, June 2). Internet battle raises questions about the First Amendment. The New York Times. Retrieved June 4, 2003, from LexisNexis Academic Universe database: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/02/national/02INTE.html
newspaper article retrieved from a database or website group example
Newspaper article retrieved from a database or website group example
  • Author: Rick McClintock
  • Year: September 20, 2000
  • Article title: Cities, youth, and technology: Toward a pedagogy of autonomy
  • Newspaper title: National Geographic
  • Retrieved date: May 30, 2003
  • Database title: Columbia University Institute of Education
  • URL: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/cities/cyt.html
answer 6
Answer # 6
  • McClintock, R. (2000, September 20). Cities, youth, and technology: Toward a pedagogy of autonomy. National Geographic. Retrieved May 30, 2003, from Columbia University Institute of Education: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/cities/cyt.html