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Crossroads: The Move Towards Heavy Metal

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  1. Crossroads:The Move Towards Heavy Metal

  2. Search for a Musical Identity Different from the Beatles • Some British groups turned to the musical values and heroes in the African-American subculture of the Blues; notably The Animals, The Rolling Stones, and The Yardbirds.

  3. The Rolling Stones The Animals

  4. The first instrumental virtuoso guitar heroes of rock emerged. Eric Clapton Jeff Beck Jimmy Page

  5. The Animals • The first British R&B group to score a major international hit, “House of the Rising Sun”.

  6. The Rolling Stones • Boasted two of the most idiomatic and versatile rhythm guitarists ever to come out of England. Keith Richards Brian Jones

  7. The Rolling Stones (cont.) • The 1966 album entitled “Aftermath”, was made up entirely of original songs hailing them as rock stars in England second only to the Beatles.

  8. The Yardbirds • An improvising group which depended on the sustained invention of their stellar lead guitarists. • Perfected the “Rave Up” technique: an improvisational strategy in which the whole band accelerates tempos while reaching a rhythmic peak, then suddenly starting all over and building up once again.

  9. The Yardbirds (cont.) • Jeff Beck, lead guitarist who replaced Eric Clapton, redefined the parameters of rock guitar with a new arsenal of guitar sonic effects (fuzz tone, feedback, dive-bomber runs, harmonic sustain). • Jimmy Page, lead guitarist who replaced Jeff Beck, moved the style into very heavy Blues-Rock, this eventually changed the band into Led Zeppelin.

  10. Cream • Eric Clapton (the first lead guitarist with The Yardbirds) formed Cream – rock’s first definitive POWER TRIO.

  11. Cream (cont.) • They played at staggering volume levels, stretching their creative abilities to the limit with innovative releases such as “I Feel Free” (exploring polytonality), “Badge” (superior pop-rock tune), “Sunshine of Your Love” and “White Room” (heavy blues styled tunes that became the prototypes for Heavy Metal).

  12. Black Sabbath • 1969 debut album, “Black Sabbath”, defined heavy metal into the 1990’s “. . .A dark, churning, supremely heavy sound that was practically all riff, topped by Ozzy Osbourne’s imitable demonspew.” • Tony Iomi, Black Sabbath’s riffmaster, became one of the most widely imitated guitar stylists.

  13. Black Sabbath (cont) Black Sabbath with Ozzy Osbourne

  14. Jimi Hendrix • The Jimi Hendrix Experience was a group derived from the British power trio concept, taking blues-based improvisational rock to perhaps its ultimate level of development. • “Hendrix himself expanded the tonal and sonic resources of the electric guitar so spectacularly that his work remains definitive a quarter of a century after his death.”

  15. Jimi Hendrix (cont)