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Insights. In a small group, create a web around the word Insights What other words or ideas can you think of that relate to this word? Our first set of short stories will be coming from the Insights unit in your textbook Crossroads. Insights.

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slide1

Insights

In a small group, create a web around the word Insights

What other words or ideas can you think of that relate to this word?

Our first set of short stories will be coming from the Insights unit in your textbook Crossroads

slide2

Insights

Using your knowledge of short stories (and the handout you have), what are some specific elements you may find in a short story?

What do the words character and plot mean?

What do you know about the elements of plot in a short story?

Who is a protagonist? Who is an antagonist?

Each of the stories that we are going to read in Insights, explore ideas, human experiences and emotions

slide3

The Crystal Stars Have Just Begun to Shine

What do you think our first story will be about?

Write out your predictions

Fourteen-year-old Deirdre is tired of being the centre of her father’s life. She and her boyfriend, Brad, decide to find her father a girlfriend, and they choose Rita, the cashier at their local grocery store. When they stage a romantic encounter, the set-up unexpectedly works, and this comic short story ends with the possibility of romance

As you can see, the title of this story is symbolic

What is a symbol?

Read pages 60 – 66

When finished reading, complete the questions in the handout

slide4

Theme

The Crystal Stars Have Just Begun to Shine

How do you define Theme?

The theme of a story is what the protagonist discovers about life. Common examples of theme include the horror of war, loneliness, betrayal and the importance of family.

The subject of this story is how a daughter tries to make her father happy by finding him a partner. The theme, however, is what the main character or the reader, discovers about life, or people by the end of the story.

In your opinion, what is the theme of this story?

slide5

Verb Tenses

The Crystal Stars Have Just Begun to Shine

Most short stories and novels are written in the past tense. The reasoning is that the action and events have taken place before the author began to write.

The author of The Crystal Stars Have Just Begun to Shine, Martha Brooks, uses the present tense.

Review the Handout Verb Tenses

When you have completed the work on the above handout, choose a paragraph (that has at least four lines) from the story and rewrite in the past tense.

This will be due by the end of class

slide6

Characterization

The Crystal Stars Have Just Begun to Shine

Author’s often reveal the personalities of characters through description, direct speech and actions.

Find at least two of each of these in the story:

Use a chart like the one below to keep track of your findings:

Descriptions Direct Speech Actions

Description: the father has soft hair

Direct Speech: “What’s wrong with my purple pants?”

Shows he is unaware of the current fashions

Actions: Watching TV reruns alone late at night shows that he likes to spend time alone

slide7

Climax

Rising Action

Conclusion

What is Plot?

Plot is the plan of action in the story. Many modern short stories do not have well-defined plot. However, those that do, generally follow a plot plan such as this:

Point of Highest Tension

Falling Action

Beginning/Introduction

Describes basic Problem or Conflict

Introduces Setting and Characters

slide8
Plot Structure of the Short Story

1. Introduction

  • gives background information such as setting, character, and the position in which the character finds himself/herself

2. Initial Incident

  • catches the reader’s interest and makes him/her want to read further
  • this is the conflict

3. Rising Action

  • a series of complications arise
  • characters face or try to solve a problem
  • suspense develops gradually
slide9
4. Climax
  • high point of interest in the story
  • the story reaches a crucial moment in which the character must act

5. Falling Action

  • explores the consequences of the climactic decision
  • tension in the story begins to ease up

6. Conclusion

  • resolution
  • the story’s conflict is resolved
  • the reader is left with a sense of completeness
slide10

Subplot

  • a secondary plot that is in addition to the main plot
  • can reflect and enhance the action of the main plot
  • can influence the direction of the main plot
  • can provide comic relief
  • often involve supporting characters besides the
  • protagonist or antagonist of the main plot
slide11

War

by Timothy Findley

What images or words do you think of when you hear the word:

WAR

Are there any positives messages or stories that come out of war?

Story Summary:

Neil Cable, the narrator, explains why a certain photo was taken in 1940, soon after his father joined the army. Neil describes his hurt and anger at his father’s enlistment – how he tried to hide and fought with his father. Both comic and moving, this short story dramatizes a young boy’s complex reaction to his father’s leaving, in language that accurately portrays the character’s growth and confusion.

Read pages 70 – 83

When finished reading, complete the questions in the handout

slide12
Plot Structure of

War

by Timothy Findley

After writing the title and author, briefly and neatly, summarize the plot structure of this short story on the handout provided

1.Introduction

  • Initial Incident
  • Rising Action
  • Climax
  • Falling Action

6. Conclusion

slide13

Plot Structure of War

by Timothy Findley

Briefly and neatly, summarize one of the sub-plots that existed in this short-story

Subplot

slide14

Point of View

What am I referring to when I want to know what ‘point of view’ a story is being told?

Point of view is the perspective from which the story is seen or told

Were going to look at four different points of view that stories could be told in

(All of what we are reviewing today is from your handout – If you can’t find the handout, you are to write these in your notes!)

slide15

Point of View

Omniscient

This point of view reveal the minds of several or all characters, knowing and telling from an ‘all-seeing’, God-like point of perspective, ‘outside’ of the story.

The story is written in the third person using, “he”, “she” or “they”.

slide16

Point of View

Limited Omniscient – Third Person Narration

Here, the author is limited to only one character, about whom he/she knows all. It shows us what one character thinks and feels from the perspective of someone ‘outside’ the story.

The story is written in the third person.

slide17

Point of View

First Person Narration

This point of view features the protagonist telling his/her own story directly to the reader using first person (“I”). This point of view tells us what the main character thinks and feels from a vantage point ‘inside’ the story and the protagonist.

slide18

Point of View

Objective

The author tells the story as he/she sees or hears it. The feelings of the character are not explored, nor does the author try to interpret the character.

The story is written in the third person narrative.

Of these four points of view, which was WAR told in?

Provide evidence.

slide19

Adverbs

War

What is an adverb?

Adverbs qualify verbs (action words), adjectives (words that describe nouns) or other adverbs by answering questions such as how, when, where, to what extent or how often.

With these examples, choose which word is the adverb:

The first draft of my essay is written neatly in pencil.

I have to sharpen my pencil now.

Here is the pencil sharpener.

By using an electric pencil sharpener, I can make my pencil extremely sharp.

With a sharp pencil, I can write my next draft very neatly.

With a partner, reread parts of the story to locate example of adverbs

Review the Handout Adverbs

This will be due… Soon!

slide20

War

by Timothy Findley

Characterization

Using the father and Neil, make a list of at least three of their characteristics each, with evidence from the story of how you know this to be true.

For Example: Neil

Characteristic: Unaware of his surroundings

Evidence: Not knowing why many of the neighbours and the police had shown up in the morning

slide21

Penny in the Dust

by Ernest Buckler

Read Aloud

slide22

Penny in the Dust

by Ernest Buckler

  • Responding to the Story:
  • What are some similarities (compare) and differences (contrast) between this story and “War”?
  • Why do you think Peter’s father offers to help look for the penny?
  • Why did Peter’s father keep the penny?
  • Why did he keep it in the upper vest pocket of his good suit? Explain
  • 4. Why do you think Peter left the penny in his father’s suit?
  • Would you have done the same thing? Why or why not?
  • 5. Would you describe this story as ‘moving’ or ‘sentimental’? Why?
slide23

Penny in the Dust

by Ernest Buckler

A Character Sketch

Write a character sketch of Peter

For each characteristic you identify, include supporting evidence from the story

You are responsible for completing a chart similar to the one below with at least three to four different characteristics:

Peter

Characteristic Evidence

slide24

Penny in the Dust

by Ernest Buckler

Beginning a Paragraph: A Chunk

The smallest unit of unified thought in an essay

Sentence #1 – Topic Sentence (TS)

Sentence #2 – Concrete Detail (CD)

Sentence #3 – Commentary (CM)

Sentence #4 – Commentary (CM)

slide25

Penny in the Dust

by Ernest Buckler

A Paragraph

A unit of unified thought in an essay

Sentence #1 – Topic Sentence (TS)

Sentence #2 – Concrete Detail (CD)

Sentence #3 – Commentary (CM)

Sentence #4 – Commentary (CM)

Sentence #5 – Concrete Detail (CD)

Sentence #6 – Commentary (CM)

Sentence #7 – Commentary (CM)

Sentence #8 – Concluding Sentence (CS)

slide26

Penny in the Dust

by Ernest Buckler

Character Sketch: Paragraph

Using your ‘characteristics’ chart and ‘Shaping Sheets’, organize and begin to write a character sketch of Peter in paragraph form

Start with “Chunks”, followed by an eight sentence paragraph

slide27

Penny in the Dust

by Ernest Buckler

‘Wrap-Up’ Paragraph

Write one sentence about a ‘treasure’ someone gave you or something special someone did for you

Then…

Chart a (CD/CM/CM/) of what that person is/was like and turn it into an eight sentence paragraph

slide28

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Preview Vocabulary

Write the following words in your notes, leaving room for their definitions

slide29

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Beleaguered

Spasmodically

Ascetic

Draught

Parapet

Turret

Paroxysm

Wadding

Ruse

Silhouetted

Gibber

slide30

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Beleaguered

Troubled or harassed

Spasmodically

In sudden bursts

Ascetic

Severe – No frills - Discipline

Draught

British for checkers

Same as ‘draft’ - a selection or drawing of persons, by lot or otherwise, from the general body of the people for military service

Parapet

Wall or elevation of earth to protect soldiers

slide31

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Turret

A “tower”

Paroxysm

A sudden attack, like a fit of coughing (or emotion)

Wadding

A soft material for stuffing, padding, packing, etc.

Ruse

A Trick

Silhouetted

The outline or general shape of something

Gibber

Rapid foolish talk

slide32

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Read pages 85 – 89

slide33

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

  • Responding to the Story:
  • Reread the first paragraph. What details in the author’s description of the setting establish the tone or atmosphere of the story?
  • What message about this civil war is the author trying to convey?
  • How does his message compare to the theme in “War”?
  • 3. What are some words or phrases the author uses to describe the sniper and what he’s doing?
  • 4. The sniper is the only character the author describes in great detail. Why do you think the author chose to do that?
  • Were you surprized by the ending? Why or why not? Did you find it a powerful ending?
  • Do you think such a story could occur in Canada? Why or why not?
  • Complete the questions in the handout
slide34

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Irony

What am I referring to when I say something is ironic?

Irony is based on a difference, contrast or opposition

It comes in three main forms:

Verbal Irony

Situational Irony

Dramatic Irony

(All of what we are reviewing today is from your handout – If you can’t find the handout, you are to write these in your notes!)

slide35

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Irony

Verbal Irony

The words stated are not meant to be taken literally. Their real or intended meaning is almost directly opposite to their literal meaning. It is saying one thing but meaning another

Example?

It’s easy to quit smoking. I’ve done it hundreds of times

slide36

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Irony

Situational Irony

The outcome of events is the reverse of what is expected. The irony is due to the circumstances or situation rather than the words

Example?

Olympic swimmer drowns in bathtub

slide37

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Irony

Dramatic Irony

The speaker is unaware of events, but the audience understands what is happening. The audience knows more. As a result, the words spoken have a greater significance for the audience than they do for the character speaking them

Example?

In Romeo and Juliet, Romeo thinks Juliet is dead. The audience is fully aware that Juliet is asleep. This is dramatic irony because the audience has knowledge about Juliet’s situation, whereas Romeo does not have the same insight

slide38

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Irony

In a short paragraph, explain which of the three forms of irony “The Sniper” portrays; include examples.

slide39

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Vivid Verbs

Words are all an author can use to create images and events in the reader’s mind. Verbs are especially useful because they help the reader to picture the action.

Here are two examples from “The Sniper”:

Almost immediately, a bullet flattened itself against the parapet of the roof

Then taking out his field dressing, he ripped open the packet with his knife

Why is the first example more vivid than simply writing:

“… a bullet hit the parapet of the roof”?

What does “ripped” in the second example tell you about the state of the sniper’s mind?

slide40

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

Conflict, Character and Theme

List the ‘public’ and ‘personal’ conflicts experienced by the protagonist in “The Sniper”

How does the protagonist’s reaction to these conflicts reveal his character?

How do these conflicts relate to the theme of the story?

Be sure to locate and use specific evidence from the story to support your answers

Even though short stories focus on particular characters facing particular problems in particular settings, they very often have a theme that goes beyond the particular to the universal.

In a small group, discuss the ideas in the story and decide if these ideas are true for many people in many places and times

Can you relate these ideas to one or more events in the news in the past year?

slide41

The Sniper

by Liam O’Flaherty

A Factual Report

Imagine you are the main character in “The Sniper.”

You’ve just returned to your company and have been asked to write a report about what happened.

List the events in the story in order they occurred.

Use a complete sentence for each event.

Because this is an official report, leave out how you felt or what you thought – just include the facts as you saw them.

slide42

Blue AgainstWhite

by Jeannette Armstrong

Divide your paper into two columns, with one titled “Blue” and the other titled “White.”

On the right-hand side column, generate a list of emotions, items or ideas associated with the word blue

On the left-hand side column, develop a similar list for the word white

Blue White

Why do you think these two words / colours are juxtaposed*?

*To place side by side, especially for comparison or contrast

slide43

Blue AgainstWhite

by Jeannette Armstrong

A young woman, returning home from living in the city, has intense memories of her childhood and life on a reserve

Read pages 92 – 95

Completing the questions in the handout when you’re finished

slide44

Blue AgainstWhite

by Jeannette Armstrong

Symbols

A symbol is a person, place, thing or event that stands for or represents something else.

For example?

A flag is a symbol of a nation

Requirements:

Author hints at symbolic importance through where it is placed in the story, how much it is emphasized and how often it is repeated

Represents something different than what it’s function is

Supported by the entire story

slide45

Blue AgainstWhite

by Jeannette Armstrong

Symbols

Short Story Examples

Penny in the Dust

The penny is symbolic of something of real value, when in actuality, it has little value

Represents value of time with the son

Represents father’s caring for the son

Represents possibilities of money

War

The photo represents a significant memory

slide46

Blue AgainstWhite

by Jeannette Armstrong

Symbols

Describe what you think a ‘door’ represents in the story

What does a ‘door’ symbolize to you?

What other symbols are used in the story?

What do you think the symbols mean to Lena?

What do they represent to you?

slide47

Blue AgainstWhite

by Jeannette Armstrong

Writing

“Do you have memories from your childhood that remain vivid in your mind? What makes them so special?”

Using the above questions, brainstorm some possible responses

When complete, use your pre-writing (your brainstorming) to draft and revise a short memoir

Choose a point of view to use that you think would most effectively communicate your vivid memory

slide48

Svayamvara

by Suniti Namjoshi

Describe in your notebook a situation in which your accomplishments were not recognized

How did you feel?

Using the name of the story and it’s definition on page 97, what do you think the story is about?

Read the story on page 97

Completing the questions in the handout when you’re finished

slide49

Svayamvara

by Suniti Namjoshi

Homework

Svayamvara has no illustration but uses design features such as colour to create interest

Create or find a suitable illustration or photo suitable for this design that reflects the story

You may use other books or print something online, but be certain to include a brief explanation as to why you chose the illustration or photograph that you did

We will be reviewing and posting some of these tomorrow

slide50

Theme

What is a theme?

The theme is the central idea of the story, usually implied rather than directly stated.

It is a generalization about life and human nature.

Theme is usually universal.

That is, it applies to all people at all times.

It should not be confused with a lesson or moral.

Whereas a lesson or a moral serves to teach, theme is a writer’s understanding about a particular truth of life.

Theme creates a story; a story creates a moral

slide51

Implications / Inferences

Implications imply something

For example, particular events in a story may imply something through ‘logic’ about a character that is not clearly stated

Examples?

Inferences are conclusions arrived from facts or evidence

How is this different than an implication?

slide52

Hunches / Red Herrings

What does the word ‘hunch’ mean?

A hunch is a feeling or impression that something is about to happen

What about a ‘red herring’… What does this mean?

This is when an author distracts the reader from a more important event in the plot

Why would an author use red herrings?

Red herrings allow for the author to confuse or mislead the audience, often leading to a ‘twist’ in the story

slide53

Suspense

What does it mean when a story has suspense?

A feeling of tension, anxiety or excitement resulting from uncertainty

Why does an author use suspense? Examples?

An author creates suspense to keep the reader interested!

slide54

Stains

by Sharon MacFarlane

Read the story on page 193 - 195

Completing the questions in the handout when you’re finished

slide55

Stains

by Sharon MacFarlane

What do we mean by the word ‘lifestyle’?

What we do

What we have

What is important

Who we try to please

Who/what we spend our time and money on

Our goals/choices

slide56

Stains

by Sharon MacFarlane

What influences our choice of lifestyle?

Others’ opinions

How much time and money we have

TV

Radio

Media

slide57

Stains

by Sharon MacFarlane

Complete the Media Messages assignment

We will have library time – today and tomorrow – to complete the assignment

Each of your responses need to be word processed

A title page should be included when you hand this in, which should have the title of the assignment and the names of all the group members

This will be due on…Wednesday

slide58

To Build a Fire

by Jack London

A man travels across the Yukon wilderness with his dog, determined to reach his companions’ camp. While he realizes that the bitter cold – 75 degree’s below zero – is unusual, his pride and lack of imagination blind him to the danger of this journey.

Read the story on page 99 - 113

Completing the questions in the handout when you’re finished

slide59

To Build a Fire

by Jack London

In “To Build a Fire,” Jack London not only tells his story convincingly and entertainingly, he also expresses his feelings about the North and how people react to it.

In a sentence, write what you think the author’s theme is

(Thesis)

List four examples from the story to support your view

(CD’s)

For each example, write two sentences that explains why it supports the author’s theme

(CM’s)

slide60

To Build a Fire

by Jack London

Writing An Essay

If you look closely over the notes you just made, you have just written a rough outline for a short essay about the story’s theme

The sentence you wrote about the author’s theme is your thesis

(The thesis is the subject of an essay)

The sentences you wrote for the examples and their explanations are similar to the concrete details and commentary you need for writing one - two paragraphs

You are to write a three paragraph essay about the story’s theme.

You are to have an introductory paragraph, one body paragraph and a concluding paragraph

slide61

To Build a Fire

by Jack London

Writing An Essay

Introductory Paragraph:

No more than three sentences, which introduces the story, author and the thesis (theme)

Body Paragraph:

Using shaping sheets, begin writing your one paragraph (with eight sentences) that develop and prove your thesis

Concluding paragraph

A summary that is all commentary, gives a finish feel to your essay and does not repeat any key phrases

slide62

To Build a Fire

by Jack London

Writing An Essay

Class time will be given today and Wednesday

A ‘neat’ copy will need to be turned in

Due: Thursday (March 12th)

slide63

Short Story Exam

  • Your short story final exam falls into four sections:
  • Multiple Choice (20 Marks)
  • Elements of short stories/sentence structure/parts of speech/proper essay format
  • 2. Matching: Character Identification (15 Marks)
  • Match 15 different characters to the appropriate story
  • 3. Matching: Quotation Identification (7 Marks)
  • Match 7 different quotations with the appropriate story
  • 4. Reading Comprehension (23 Marks)
  • Read a story and answer seven questions
  • Written on Friday (March 13th)