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Chemical Hazards

Chemical Hazards. Dr. Ardini Raksanagara, MD., MPH Public Health Department Faculty of Medicine, UNPAD. Subtopics. Toxicology Pneumoconiosis Inorganic Chemicals Organic Chemicals . SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES. The student will be able :

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Chemical Hazards

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  1. Chemical Hazards Dr. Ardini Raksanagara, MD., MPH Public Health Department Faculty of Medicine, UNPAD

  2. Subtopics • Toxicology • Pneumoconiosis • Inorganic Chemicals • Organic Chemicals

  3. SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES The student will be able : • to recognize chemical hazards in the workplace environment (C2)

  4. References • Suma’mur, Higene Perusahaan dan Kesehatan Kerja, CV Haji Masagung, Jakarta, 1994. page 103-160 • Harrington, Occupational Heath , Pocket Consultant, Blackwell Scientific Publications,1987. 91-114, 131-180 • Levy & Wegman, Occupational Health, Recognizing and Preventing Work Related Disease. Third Edition. Little Broan and Company, Boston / NewYork/Toronto/London,2006. Chapter : 13 • Rosenstock, Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Second Edition, Saunders, 2005. Chapter : 19

  5. Chemical Hazards • The chemicals used at the facility may be hazardous because they are : flammable, reactive, radioactive, or toxic

  6. Illustration • There are approximately 80,000 chemicals in commercial use • 15,000 of which are frequently produced or used. • It is estimated that approximately 1,000 new chemicals are added to commercial use each year.

  7. Topic • Toxicology • Target Organ • Route of Entry • Organic and Inorganic Chemicals • Toxic gases • Particles (Pneumoconiosis)

  8. Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organism. is the study of the harmful effects of chemical, including drugs, on living organism

  9. Toxic chemicals enter and move through the environment (air, soil, and food) at various concentration until they : • Contact a receptor individual • Enter the body by inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption • Are absorbed into the bloodstream (uptake), reaching a certain concentration • Undergo metabolism, and • Are delivered to target organs

  10. Target organ • TARGET ORGAN : An organ that is damaged by xenobiotic or its metabolite 1. Respiratory system 2. Nervous system 3. Genito-urinary system 4. Cardiovascular system 5. Skin 6. Liver 7. Endocrine system

  11. Xenobiotic is used to describe any foreign substance that gains entry the body

  12. The hazard of a given exposure to a toxic material depends on : -the toxicity of the substance, and -the duration and intensity of contact with the substance

  13. Many factors contribute to toxicity : 1.Route of entry 2.Dosage level 3.Physiological state of receiver 4.Environmental conditions 5.Physical properties of the chemical 6.Chemical properties of the chemical.

  14. The factors that may be of significance in determining toxic effect include • Age • Sex • Ethnic group • Genetic background • Endocrine status • Atopic state • Nutrition • Fatique • Coexistent disease • Coexistent exposure to other synergistic (or antagonist) chemicals • Previous exposure to the toxic agent

  15. Route of entry • - inhalation • - absorption through the skin • - ingestion • The most important role route of entry for industrial exposure to chemical is by inhalation.

  16. Classification of Chemical Hazards • Dusts • Fumes • Mists • Vapors • Gases

  17. Classification of Chemical Hazards • Organic • Inorganic Chemicals • Toxic gases • Particle

  18. Inorganic Chemical • Lead • Mercury

  19. Organic chemical • Organic chemicals are carbon containing compounds • DDT

  20. Toxic gases

  21. Particles • Coal dust • Silica dust • Asbestos • Cotton dust

  22. Health effects of chemical • Acids • Alkalis

  23. Prevention - control of exposure, monitoring of exposure - engineering control - administrative control • Treatment

  24. Threshold Limit Value (TLV) • Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) • LD 50

  25. Thankyou

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