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COSC4607 - Computer Security Dr. Haibin Zhu Assistant Professor Department of CS and Math, Nipissing University Room: A124A, Ext.: 4434 Email: haibinz@nipissingu.ca URL: http://www.nipissingu.ca/faculty/haibinz Office Hour: Mon. & Thurs. 2:30pm-4:30pm; or by appointment

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slide1

COSC4607 - Computer Security

          • Dr. Haibin Zhu
  • Assistant Professor
  • Department of CS and Math, Nipissing University
  • Room: A124A, Ext.: 4434
  • Email: haibinz@nipissingu.ca
  • URL: http://www.nipissingu.ca/faculty/haibinz
  • Office Hour: Mon. & Thurs. 2:30pm-4:30pm; or by appointment
slide2

Learning Outcomes

  • On completion of this course you will be able to:
  • Understand a number of basic design principles in computer security.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the importance of security models with reference to the security of computer systems.
  • Describe the features and security mechanisms which are generally used to implement security policies.
  • Provide examples of the implementation of such features and mechanisms within a number of particular operating systems.
  • Display a breadth of knowledge of the security vulnerabilities affecting computer systems.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the main issues relating to Web security in the context of computer systems.
schedule
Schedule
  • Introduction to Computer Security
  • Access Control
  • Security Models
  • Security Mechanisms
  • Linux / Unix Security
  • Windows 2000 Security
  • Computer Virus
  • Software Security
  • Security of Distributed Systems
  • Network Security
  • Cryptography
slide4

Resources

Notes

Lecturers

Books

The Internet

… and

YOU and YOUR FELLOW STUDENTS

slide5

Books

  • Textbooks:
    • D. Gollmann, Computer Security, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
  • References:
    • C.P. Pfleeger, Security in Computing, Prentice-Hall, 1997 (2nd Ed).
    • R. Anderson, Security Engineering, Wiley, 2001.
    • B. Schneier, Secrets and Lies, Wiley, 2000.
    • John Viega & Gary McGraw: Building Secure Software, Addison Wesley, 2001
slide8

Review: Operating Systems (1)

  • It is useful to have some basic understanding of what an Operating System is and what it does.
  • An Operating System is an application that “sits” between users and applications and the computer hardware. Essentially, it provides a moderately friendly interface to the hardware.
  • Because computers “think binary” then they are extremely user-unfriendly! The Operating System removes some of the pain!
slide9

User

Application Program

Operating System

Hardware

Review: Operating Systems (2)

slide10

User

Graphical User Interface (GUI)

Application Program

Command Interpreter

System Services

Operating System

Review: Operating Systems (3)

A more common version of the previous diagram is given below:

slide11

Review: Operating Systems (4)

  • The “System Services” layer is the real interface to the Operating System. It consists of many functions designed to translate an application request into something the Operating System can handle.
  • POSIX is becoming the standard for System Services, mainly driven by the need to make it easier to port an application from one Operating System to another.
  • So, what does an Operating System actually do?
  • The primary functions of an Operating System are given on the next slide.
  • Note that an Operating System must perform all its tasks efficiently and economically. Resource use by the system, in terms of CPU time, memory and disk usage must all be acceptable for the users.
slide12

Review: Operating Systems (5)

  • Starting and stopping programs and sharing the CPU between them
  • Managing memory:
    • Memory allocation; keeping track of memory usage
  • Input and Output:
    • Device drivers; “concurrent” handling of I/O devices
  • File management
  • Protection (preventing different programs from interfering with each other – “firewalling”)
  • Networking (“seamless” communication with other devices)
  • Error handling (detection, recovery, warning)
slide13

System Service Interface

File Manager

Process Manager

Memory Manager

I/O Manager

Network Manager

Hardware Interface

Review: Operating Systems (6)

security problems
Security Problems
  • Security and reliability
  • Buffer overflows
  • Arrays and integers
  • Canonical representations
  • Race conditions
  • Precautions & defences
  • Dangers of abstraction
security reliability
Security & Reliability
  • On a PC, you are in control of the software components sending inputs to each other
  • On the Internet, hostile parties can provide input
  • To make software more reliable, it is tested against typical usage patterns: ‘it does not matter how many bugs there are, it matters how often they are triggered’
  • To make software more secure, it has to be tested against ‘untypical’ usage patterns (but there are typical attack patterns)
secure software
Secure Software
  • Software is secure if it can handle intentionally malformed input; the attacker picks (the probability distribution of) the inputs
  • Secure software: protect the integrity of the runtime system
  • Secure software ≠ software with security features
  • Networking software is a popular target
    • intended to receive external input
    • involves low level manipulations of buffers
preliminaries
Preliminaries
  • In code written in a typical programming language values are stored in variables, arrays, etc.
  • To execute a program, memory sections (‘buffers’) have to be allocated to variables, etc.
  • In programming languages like C or C++ the programmer allocates and de-allocates memory
  • Type-safe languages like Java guarantee that memory management is ‘error-free’
buffer overflows
Buffer overflows
  • If the value assigned to a variable exceeds the size of the buffer allocated to this variable, memory locations not allocated to this variable are overwritten
  • If the memory location overwritten had been allocated to some other variable, the value of that other variable can be changed
  • Depending on circumstances, an attacker could change the value of a protected variable A by assigning a deliberately malformed value to some other variable B
buffer overflows19
Buffer overflows
  • Unintentional buffer overflows can make software crash
  • Intentional buffer overflows are a concern if an attacker can modify security relevant data
  • Attractive targets are return address (specifies the next piece of code to be executed) and security settings
  • In safe languages such errors cannot occur
stack heap

stack

FFFF

memory

0000

heap

Stack & heap
  • Stack: contains return address, local variables and function arguments; it is quite predictable where a particular buffer will be placed on the stack
  • Heap: dynamically allocated memory; it is more difficult but by no means impossible to predict where a particular buffer will be placed on the heap
stack overflows

return

address

my_address

write to A:

value1|

value2|

my_address

value2

value1

buffer for

variable A

Stack overflows
  • Find a buffer on the runtime stack of a privileged program that can overflow the return address
  • Overwrite the return address with the start address of the code you want to execute
  • Your code is now privileged too
precautions
Precautions
  • Be sparing with privileges: if the code attacked runs with few privileges, the damage is limited
  • If feasible, use a type-safe language
  • In C and C++ avoid dangerous instructions like gets() and use instructions like fgets() where the length of the argument has to be specified; extensive lists of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ instructions exist
  • Non-executable stack: stack cannot be used to store attack code
defences
Defences
  • Canaries: (random) check values placed before the return address (StackGuard)
  • Before returning, check that the canary still has the correct value

return

address

my_address

write to A:

value1|

value2|

my_address

to A

check value

value2 ≠ check value

canary

value1

buffer for

variable A

attack detected

heap overflows
Heap overflows
  • More difficult to determine how to overwrite a specific buffer
  • More difficult to determine which other buffers will be overwritten in the process; if you are an attacker, you may not want to crash the system before you have taken over
  • Attacks that do not succeed all the time are a threat
  • Heap overflow attacks have started to occur
integers
Integers
  • Mathematics: integers form an infinite set
  • Programming languages: signed 4-byte integers, unsigned 4-byte integers, long integers,…
  • Truncation (Unix example): input UID as signed integer, value ≠ 0?, truncate to unsigned short integer: 0x10000  0x0000 (root!)
  • Different interpretation of signed and unsigned integers: (signed) -1 = 0xFFFF = 216-1 (unsigned)
integers26
Integers
  • Addition: 0xFF00 + 0x0100 = 0x0000: base + offset < base
  • Of course, the runtime may raise an exception when an overflow occurs on addition
  • Ashcraft & Engler [IEEE S&P 2002]: “Many programmers appear to view integers as having arbitrary precision, rather than being fixed-sized quantities operated on with modulo arithmetic.”
arrays

allocate

4 elements

assign

5 elements

base

base

base

Arrays
  • Buffer overflow: the length of an array is not checked when elements are written to the buffer
  • Wrap-around to lower addresses: when arithmetic operations do not have the result expected by the programmer
scripting
Scripting
  • In scripting languages, executables can be passed as arguments
  • Escape characters indicate that an argument is an executable
  • ‘Unescaping’ (making input non-executable) can protect code from malicious input
  • Filters for escape characters have to know the escape characters and the character set in use [CA-2000-2]
canonical representations
Canonical Representations
  • File names, URLs, IP addresses, … can be written in more than one way
  • Directory traversal: c:\x\data = c:\y\z\..\..\x\data = c:\y\z\%2e%2e\%2e%2e\x\data
  • Dotless IP: a.b.c.d  a224 + b216 + c28 + d
  • Symbolic link: file name pointing to another file
  • Canonicalization computes the standard representation
  • When access right depends on location, you better get the location right; do not rely on the names received as input
race conditions
Race conditions
  • Multiple computations access shared data in a way that their results depend on the sequence of accesses
    • Multiple processes accessing the same variable
    • Multiple threads in multi-threaded processes (as in Java servlets)
  • An attacker can try to change a value after it has been checked but before it is being used
  • TOCTTOU (time-to-check-to-time-of-use) is a well-known security issue
example ctss 1960s
Example – CTSS (1960s)
  • Once the message of the day was the password file
  • Every user had a unique home directory; when a user invoked the editor, a scratch file with fixed name SCRATCH was created in this directory
  • Several users working as system manager:
    • system manager one starts to edit message of the day: SCRATCH  MESS
    • system manager two starts to edit the password file: SCRATCH  PWD
    • system manager two stores the edited file:

MESS  PWD

defences code inspection
Defences – Code inspection
  • Code inspection is tedious: we need automation
  • K. Ashcroft & D. Engler: Using Programmer-Written Compiler Extensions to Catch Security Holes, IEEE S&P 2002
  • Meta-compilation for C source code; ‘expert system’ incorporating rules for known issues: untrustworthy sources  sanitizing checks  trust sinks; raises alarm if untrustworthy input gets to sink without proper checks
  • Code analysis to learn new design rules: Where is the sink that belongs to the check we see?
  • Applied to Linux and OpenBSD kernels
defences black box testing
Defences – Black-box testing
  • Black-box testing when source code is not available
  • You do not need the source code to observe how memory is used or to test whether inputs are properly checked
  • Oulu University Secure Programming Group: PROTOS project (Juha Röning, http://www.ee.oulu.fi/research/ouspg/)
  • Syntax testing of protocols based on formal interface specification, valid cases, anomalies
  • Applied to SNMP implementations
defences type safety
Defences – Type-safety
  • Type safety: guarantees absence of untrapped errors
  • Cardelli: Practitioners who invented type safety often meant just “memory integrity”, while theoreticians always meant “execution integrity”, and it’s the latter that seems more relevant now.
  • A language does not have to be typed to be safe: LISP
  • Safety guaranteed by static checks and by runtime checks
type safety
Type-safety
  • Marketing ploy: “We are type safe, therefore we are secure”
  • Type safety is difficult to prove completely
  • Proofs are conducted in an abstract model, problems may hide in the actual implementation (e.g. SUN Security Bulletin #00218)
  • PROTOS: Also software in Java were shown to have buffer overflows in native code sections
  • Type safety is a useful property to have for security but type safety does not imply security
keeping up to date
Keeping up-to-date
  • Sources of information: CERT advisories, BugTraq at www.securityfocus.com, security bulletins from software vendors
  • Hacking tools have attack scripts that automatically search for and exploit known type of vulnerabilities
  • Analysis tools following the same ideas will cover most real attacks
  • Patching vulnerable systems in not easy: you have to get the patches to the users and avoid introducing new vulnerabilities through the patches
intrusion patterns

number of intrusions

Time

disclosure

attack scripts released

patch

released

Intrusion patterns

W. Arbaugh, B. Fithen, J. McHugh: Windows of Vulnerability:

A Case Study Analysis, IEEE Computer, 12/2000

the wider picture
The wider picture
  • We could treat all these problems individually and look for specific solutions, often limited to a given programming language or runtime system (penetrate-and-patch at a meta-level)
  • Overall, a general pattern: familiar programming abstractions
    • variable, array, integer, data & program, address (resource locator), atomic transaction, …
    • are implemented in a way that can break the abstraction
summary of security problems
Summary of Security Problems
  • Many of the problems listed may look trivial
  • There is no silver bullet
    • Code-inspection: better at catching known problems, may raise false alarms
    • Black-box testing: better at catching known problems
    • Type safety: guarantees from an abstract (partial) model need not carry over to the real system
  • Experience in high-level programming languages may be a disadvantage when writing low level network routines
introduction to computer security
Introduction to Computer Security
  • Security objectives
  • Security strategies
  • Distributed systems security = computer & communications security
  • Aspects of computer security
  • Fundamental design principles for
  • computer security
security objectives
Security objectives
  • Confidentiality: prevent unauthorized disclosure of information
  • Integrity: prevent unauthorized modification of

Information

  • Availability: prevent unauthorized withholding of information or resources
  • Other aspects: accountability, authenticity
confidentiality
Confidentiality
  • Historically, security and secrecy were closely related; sometimes, security and confidentiality are used as synonyms
    • Prevent unauthorized disclosure of information (prevent unauthorized reading)
  • Privacy: protection of personal data
  • Secrecy: protection of data belonging to an organization
integrity
Integrity
  • ITSEC Definition: The property that prevents unauthorized modification of information (prevent unauthorized writing)
  • Orange Book (US Trusted Computer Systems Evaluation Criteria):
    • Data Integrity - The state that exists when computerized data is the same as that in the source document and has not been exposed to accidental or malicious alteration or destruction (integrity synonymous for external consistency)
  • In communications: detection and correction of intentional and accidental modifications of transmitted data
availability
Availability
  • IS 7498-2 ( Basic Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Part 2: Security Architecture): The property of being accessible and usable upon demand by an authorized entity
  • Denial of Service (DoS): The prevention of authorized access of resources or the delaying of time-critical operations
  • Distributed denial of service (DDoS) is receiving a lot of attention and systems are now designed to be more resilient against these attacks
accountability
Accountability
  • Audit information must be selectively kept and protected so that actions affecting security can be traced to the responsible party.
dependability
Dependability
  • The property of a computer system such that reliance can justifiably be placed on the service it delivers. Here, the service delivered by a system is its behavior as it is perceived by its users; a user is another system which interacts with the former.
a remark on terminology
A Remark on Terminology
  • Definition: Computer security deals with the prevention and detection of unauthorized actions by users of a computer system.
  • There is no single definition of security
    • When reading a document, be careful not to confuse your own notion of security with that used in the document
    • A lot of time is being spent - and wasted – trying to define an unambiguous notation for security
  • Resources:
    • http://www.radium.ncsc.mil/tpep/process/faq.html
    • http://www.cesg.gov.uk/assurance/iacs/itsec/index.htm
    • ftp://ftp.cse-cst.gc.ca/pub/criteria/CTCPEC
security strategies
Security strategies
  • Prevention: take measures that prevent your assets from being damaged
  • Detection: take measures so that you can detect when, how, and by whom an asset has been damaged
  • Reaction: take measures so that you can recover your assets or to recover from a damage to your assets
example 1 private property
Example 1– Private Property
  • Prevention: locks at doors, window bars, walls round the property
  • Detection: stolen items are missing, burglar alarms, closed circuit (cable) TV
  • Reaction: call the police, replace stolen items, make an insurance claim …
  • Footnote: Parallels to the physical world can illustrate aspects of computer security but they can also be misleading
example 2 e commerce
Example 2 – E-Commerce
  • Prevention: encrypt your orders, rely on the merchant to perform checks on the caller, don’t use the Internet (?) …
  • Detection: an unauthorized transaction appears on your credit card statement
  • Reaction: complain, request new card number, etc.
security policies
Security Policies
  • Organizational security policy: Laws, rules, and practices that regulate how an organization manages and protects resources to achieve its security policy objectives.
  • Automated security policy: Restrictions and properties that specify how a computing system prevents violations of the organizational security policy.
    • D. F. Sterne: On the Buzzword ‘Security Policy’, 1991 IEEE Symposium on Research in Security and Privacy, pages 219-230
distributed systems security
Distributed systems security
  • Distributed systems: computer systems connected by a network Communications (network) security: deals with security aspects of the communications links
  • Computer security: deals with security aspects related to the end systems; today, this is the difficult part
  • Application security: relies on both to provide services securely to end users
other computer security aspects
Other Computer Security Aspects
  • Access control (authorization): prevention and detection of unauthorized actions by users of a computer system
    • How to design access control systems
    • How to support application security policies
  • Secure software: software that can cope with malicious inputs (important paradigm shift from the PC world to the Internet)
principles of computer security
Principles of Computer Security
  • The Dimensions of Computer Security
1 st where to focus security
1st - Where to focus security
  • The focus may be on data – operations – users e.g. integrity requirements may refer to rules on
    • Format and content of data items (internal consistency): account balance is an integer
    • Operations that may be performed on a data item: credit, debit, transfer, …
    • Users who are allowed to access a data item ( authorized access): account holder and bank clerk have access to account
3 rd complexity or assurance
3rd-Complexity or Assurance?
  • The location of a security mechanism on the man-machine scale is often related to its complexity
  • Generic mechanisms are simple, applications clamor for feature-rich security functions
  • Do you prefer simplicity - and higher assurance - to a feature-rich security environment?
the fundamental dilemma of computer security
The Fundamental Dilemma ofComputer Security
  • Security-unaware users have specific security requirements but no security expertise.
    • Simple generic mechanisms may not match specific security requirements. To choose the right features from a rich menu, you have to be a security expert.
    • Security unaware users are in a no-win situation
security evaluation
Security Evaluation
  • To check whether a system delivers the security services promised, one has to state the function of the security system and the required degree of assurance (trust) in its security
  • To gain high assurance, the security system has to be examined in close detail
  • There is a trade-off between complexity and assurance. The higher an assurance level you aim for, the simpler your system ought to be.
  • Feature-rich security and high assurance do not match easily
4 th central or decentralized control
4th-Central or Decentralized Control?
  • Within the domain of a security policy, the same rules should be enforced.
  • With a single entity in charge of security, it is easy to achieve uniformity but this central entity may become a performance bottleneck. Distributed solutions may be more efficient but added care has to be taken to guarantee that different components enforce a consistent policy.
  • Should the tasks of defining and enforcing security be given to a central entity or should they be left to individual components in a system?
5 th blocking access to the layer below
5th-Blocking access to the layer below
  • Every protection mechanism defines a security perimeter (boundary).
  • The parts of the system that can disable the mechanism lie within the perimeter, the parts of the system that can malfunction without compromising the mechanism lie outside.
  • Attackers try to bypass protection mechanisms; corollary to the second design decision:
    • How do you stop an attacker from getting access to a layer below your protection mechanism?
the layer below examples
The Layer Below - Examples
  • Recovery tools like Norton Utilities recover data by reading memory directly and then restoring the file structure. Such a tool can be used to circumvent logical access control as it does not care for the logical memory structure
  • Unix treats I/O devices and physical memory devices like files. If access permissions are defined badly, e.g. if read access is given to a disk containing read protected files, then an attacker can read the disk contents and reconstruct the files.
more examples
More examples
  • Object reuse: in a single processor system, when a new process becomes active, it gets access to memory positions used by the previous process. You have to avoid storage residues, i.e. data left behind in the memory area allocated to the new process.
  • Backup: whoever has access to a backup tape has access to all the data on it. Logical access control is of no help and backup tapes have to be locked away safely to protect the data.
  • Core dumps: same story again
summary
Summary
  • Security terminology is ambiguous with many overloaded terms
  • Distributed systems security builds on communications security and on computer security
  • In computer security, two major challenges are the design of access control systems that fit the requirements of the Internet and the design of secure software
  • In security, understanding the problem is more difficult than finding the solution