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Deep Vents. LP 10 AdVENTurous Findings on the Deep Sea Floor Mystery of the Megaplume from Submarine Ring of Fire LP 22 Who Promised You a Rose Garden LP 18 Let’s Make a Tubeworm!. Packet Hydrothermal Vent Challenge The Volcano Factory – both from the 2004 Submarine Ring of Fire.

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deep vents
DeepVents
  • LP 10 AdVENTurous Findings on the Deep Sea Floor
  • Mystery of the Megaplume from Submarine Ring of Fire
  • LP 22 Who Promised You a Rose Garden
  • LP 18 Let’s Make a Tubeworm!
slide2
Packet
  • Hydrothermal Vent Challenge
  • The Volcano Factory – both from the 2004 Submarine Ring of Fire
make your own deep vent
Make Your Own Deep Vent
  • Superheated water emerges from the vents along a ridge.
  • Minerals that dissolved in the water while it was in the fractured crust precipitate out as the water cools from contact with cold deep sea water.
  • The chemicals form chimneys around vents. The chemistry varies with the crust chemistry.
mystery of the megaplume
Mystery of the Megaplume
  • Juan de Fuca Ridge data from 1986
  • Tow-Yos – vertical, up and down movement of a CTD (conductivity, temperature and depth) meter as ship moves
  • Used to locate vents along a spreading center or ridge
mystery of the megaplume12
Mystery of the Megaplume
  • Use a permanent Sharpie marker
  • Plot the depth on the y axis (3 units/100m) and the location along a 20+ mile transect on the x axis (2 units/mile).
  • Each data point is written as the temperature anomaly at the location and depth. Do all the 2000 and 1200 m first. Connect with dotted line and then put intermediate numbers on the line.
  • Connect the areas of common temperature anomaly.
slide13
Color in the areas of common temperature using dark red for the highest temperature differences, going down the visible spectrum with colors as the areas are cooler.

Compare your work with these data.

who promised you a rose garden
Who Promised you a Rose Garden?

Deep vent systems are extremely geologically active, dynamic systems

What changes are observed over time? In 1979 the Rose Garden had extensive fields of the tubeworm Riftia, mussels were abundant and clams were absent.

Compare the 1985 map of the Rose Garden with the 1979 observations.

rosebud
Rosebud
  • The Rose Garden was found to be dead in subsequent visits, but recently the beginning of a new community was located and named Rosebud.
let s make a tubeworm
Let’s Make a Tubeworm
  • Deep vent tube worms are unique organisms – vestimentiferans.
  • They have endosymbiotic bacteria in an organ called the trophosome which oxidize hydrogen sulfide. The energy from this process is used to synthesize carbon compounds from CO2 and water – chemosynthesis.
  • Use the illustration on the back cover of your curriculum book as a model for what your deep vent tubeworm is going to look like.
slide24
Ocean Explorer Web Site
  • http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov
slide25
Ocean Explorer Web Site
  • http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov
vents and seeps
Vents and Seeps
  • Using real data to model the way that ocean scientists ask and answer questions.
  • Start with cold methane seeps which have the more challenging activities.
  • Progress to deep vents and end with the most fun and least intellectually challenging activity.
cold seeps
Cold Seeps
  • LP 19 This Old Tubeworm
  • LP 17 Biochemical Detectives
  • How Diverse is That? From Windows on the Deep
  • Packet
  • What’s the Big Deal? A student literature research project
common feature chemosynthesis
Common Feature: Chemosynthesis

Some organisms use methane as an energy and carbon source and some use hydrogen sulfide as an energy source with carbon dioxide as a carbon source.

Methane hydrate is a clathrate – a lattice of one compound (water) inside which a second compound (methane) is contained. There are no covalent bonds. Stable due to pressure and temperature. Methane may be released rapidly when conditions change.

methane hydrate
Methane Hydrate
  • USGS estimates two times as much carbon as is stored in known reserves of coal, oil and natural gas.
  • Methane is a greenhouse gas; Large release could result in a quick climate change.
  • Release could trigger a landslide, causing a tsunami.
  • Unusual communities of organisms utilize the energy sources; new species, including bacteria.
cold methane seeps
Cold Methane Seeps
  • Located on continental shelf where methane seeps out of the sediments and hydrogen sulfide is also common.
  • Have worms related to those of deep vents with chemosynthetic bacteria as well as clams and mussels with other chemosynthetic bacteria.
  • Realitively stable through time.
slide31
Ocean Explorer Web Site
  • http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov
slide32
Ocean Explorer Web Site
  • http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov
this old tubeworm page 146
This Old Tubeworm page 146
  • Plot the growth rate data on graph paper for Lamellibranchia.
  • Then use the worksheet to figure out how long it takes to grow 10 cm for each part of their life cycle.
  • Add the years up to estimate how old a 2 meter worm would be.
biochemical detectives pg 128
Biochemical Detectives pg 128
  • Not all seep organisms have the same kind of bacteria nor do they get their energy from the same source.
  • Carbon source varies – sea water and methane for chemosynthetic bacteria and atmosphere for detritus from photic zone or land

Bivalves – mussels and clams tested for 13C – a stable isotope of carbon

13 c expressed as o oo when compared with a standard
13 C expressed as o/oo when compared with a standard

Carbon from sea water is 0 o/oo

Carbon from photosynthetically dervied material is 18-20 o/oo

Carbon from methane is 40 o/oo or higher

Carbon from sulfide metabolism is 30-40 o/oo

Note error on page 130 higher not lower

slide40
Use the data sheet on page 132 and plot clams and mussels as a histogram on graph paper.
  • What groupings do you find? How does each grouping obtain its food?
how diverse is that
How Diverse is That?
  • From Windows on the Deep
  • Data rich but complicated
  • We are going to use the data but in a less complicated form:

1. Count the number of species for site A and B, seep and non-seep areas and record your findings.

2. Use the form provided to make a bar graph, comparing seep and non-seep numbers of individuals in each species. Use two colors on one graph as lines side by side. Do site A.

questions
Questions
  • Which has more kinds of organisms – seep or non-seep at Site A? Site B?
  • Which supports more numbers of organisms – seep or non-seep for Site A? Site B?
  • Are there species that only occur at seeps?
  • What might account for the Site B seep numbers?
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