Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Aggression in Sports PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Aggression in Sports

Aggression in Sports

1224 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Aggression in Sports

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Aggression in Sports

  2. What is the Role of Aggression in Sports? • Intimidation? • Getting an edge? • Part of the game / part of competition? • At what point does it become “too aggressive?”

  3. Definitions AGGRESSION: a forceful action or procedure, especially when intended to dominate or master Etymology: from aggredi -- “to attack” Must be aimed at another human being with the goal of inflicting physical or psychological harm

  4. Is this hostile aggression, instrumental aggression or sport assertiveness??

  5. Is this hostile aggression, instrumental aggression or sport assertiveness??

  6. Is this hostile aggression, instrumental aggression or sport assertiveness??

  7. Hostile aggression, instrumental aggression or sport assertiveness... How to determine... It is clear that it depends on the intent of the action...

  8. Why are athletes aggressive?Theories of Aggression

  9. Instinct Theory • Aggression viewed as an inborn drive • Freudian theory • Ethological viewpoint: Animals, including humans, are innately aggressive • Konrad Lorenz (1966) -- “The main function of sports lies in the cathartic discharge of aggressive urge.” • Catharsis -- sports seen as a socially acceptable way to discharge aggression

  10. Is athletic participation “cathartic?” Does hitting someone hard release “pent-up” aggressive urges? • Research generally does NOT support the catharsis theory • aggression increases over the course of a game • watching violence is not cathartic (e.g., t.v. violence) • aggression begets aggression

  11. Frustration-Aggression Theory • Aggression viewed as a response to frustration • A variation of the catharsis theory • Frustration can lead to a variety of responses (e.g., aggression, increased effort, quitting) • Anger + Stress physiology (positive feedback loop)

  12. Social Learning Theory • Aggression viewed as a learned behavior • Modeling in sports (e.g., young athletes watching aggressive play) • Strong learning occurs when aggressive play is seen as successful and portrayed as justifiable • Aggressive play is reinforced (receiving praise from coaches, parents, peers)

  13. Sport-Specific factors • Aggression influenced by: • Reciprocity (we respond to being “attacked”) • Rivalries (“territorial?”) and “Protection” of teammates • Drug use (e.g., steroids, alcohol) • Sports equipment as “weapon” (e.g., hockey stick, helmets) • Athletic environment (e.g., a crowded, noisy, hot gym; obnoxious fans) • Study of hit batters and temperature

  14. Sport-Specific factors • Aggression influenced by: • Taunting • Nature of the game (contact) • Inconsistent officiating (leading to frustration) • Media effects • Does the sports media glorify / exaggerate violence? • What do fans want to see? (e.g., ESPN highlights)

  15. Reducing Excessive Aggression and Violence • Punishments for overly aggressive/violent play must have greater punitive value • Emphasize fair play code-of-conduct • Athletes/coaches should agree on what is ok and what is not -- heavy penalties should be imposed when inappropriate behavior occurs • Media must place in proper perspective the isolated incidents of aggression rather than making them highlights

  16. Reducing Aggression and Violence in Sports • Coaches and referees should be encouraged to attend in-service workshops for dealing with aggression/violence on the part of players • Reduce (ban?) use of alcoholic beverages at sporting events