Aggression in Sports - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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    9. Why are athletes aggressive? Theories of Aggression

    10. Instinct Theory Aggression viewed as an inborn drive Freudian theory Ethological viewpoint: Animals, including humans, are innately aggressive Konrad Lorenz (1966) -- The main function of sports lies in the cathartic discharge of aggressive urge. Catharsis -- sports seen as a socially acceptable way to discharge aggression

    11. Is athletic participation cathartic? Does hitting someone hard release pent-up aggressive urges? Research generally does NOT support the catharsis theory aggression increases over the course of a game watching violence is not cathartic (e.g., t.v. violence) aggression begets aggression

    12. Frustration-Aggression Theory Aggression viewed as a response to frustration A variation of the catharsis theory Frustration can lead to a variety of responses (e.g., aggression, increased effort, quitting) Anger + Stress physiology (positive feedback loop)

    13. Social Learning Theory Aggression viewed as a learned behavior Modeling in sports (e.g., young athletes watching aggressive play) Strong learning occurs when aggressive play is seen as successful and portrayed as justifiable Aggressive play is reinforced (receiving praise from coaches, parents, peers)

    14. Sport-Specific factors Aggression influenced by: Reciprocity (we respond to being attacked) Rivalries (territorial?) and Protection of teammates Drug use (e.g., steroids, alcohol) Sports equipment as weapon (e.g., hockey stick, helmets) Athletic environment (e.g., a crowded, noisy, hot gym; obnoxious fans) Study of hit batters and temperature

    15. Sport-Specific factors Aggression influenced by: Taunting Nature of the game (contact) Inconsistent officiating (leading to frustration) Media effects Does the sports media glorify / exaggerate violence? What do fans want to see? (e.g., ESPN highlights)

    16. Reducing Excessive Aggression and Violence Punishments for overly aggressive/violent play must have greater punitive value Emphasize fair play code-of-conduct Athletes/coaches should agree on what is ok and what is not -- heavy penalties should be imposed when inappropriate behavior occurs Media must place in proper perspective the isolated incidents of aggression rather than making them highlights

    17. Reducing Aggression and Violence in Sports Coaches and referees should be encouraged to attend in-service workshops for dealing with aggression/violence on the part of players Reduce (ban?) use of alcoholic beverages at sporting events