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Memory and Peripherals. COSC-100 (Elements of Computer Science) Prof. Juola. Basic Organization. We’ve seen the CPU -- what else? Memory Main/system memory Specialist memory Peripherals Keyboard, monitor, mouse Drives (floppy, hard, pen) Printers, scanners, fish-tank aerators.

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memory and peripherals

Memory and Peripherals

COSC-100 (Elements of Computer Science)

Prof. Juola

basic organization
Basic Organization
  • We’ve seen the CPU -- what else?
  • Memory
    • Main/system memory
    • Specialist memory
  • Peripherals
    • Keyboard, monitor, mouse
    • Drives (floppy, hard, pen)
    • Printers, scanners, fish-tank aerators
memory hum cats tune
Memory (hum Cats tune)
  • RAM (Random Access Memory)
    • can both read from and write to
    • used for main system storage, typically multiple gigabytes (Gb) at this point
    • cost varies with retrieval speed (and size)
  • Cache [“cash”] memory
    • extremely high speed memory, very expensive, but used as part of CPU for performance
losing my memories
Losing my memories
  • Problem with RAM -- requires continuous power.
    • DRAM -- “Dynamic” RAM
    • SRAM -- “Static” RAM is misnamed
  • ROM (Read-Only Memory)
    • cannot be written (like CD-ROM!)
    • never loses data, even when power goes out
    • memory values built-in at factory
programming roms
Programming ROMs
  • ROM -- programmed at factory
    • build an explicit one or zero circuit, repeat
  • PROM (Programmable ROM)
    • field-programmable by blowing fuses
    • problem : can’t “unblow” fuses (write once)
  • EEPROM (Electrically Erasable PROM)
    • field-(re)programmable, but limited cycles
buses and ports
Buses and Ports
  • CPU is connected to memory via “bus,” a collection of wires
  • Typical computer has 32-bit bus, meaning 32 data wires
  • Buses also connect to “ports,” electrical sockets for peripheral connections
  • “Peripherals” connect through ports or (internally) direct to bus
peripherals
Peripherals
  • Computers are useless if they can’t communicate
  • Data input devices
  • Data output devices
  • Data storage devices
  • Manipulative devices
    • and whatever else your imaginations can dream up. Go wild -- it may be worth $$$
input devices
Input devices
  • Keyboard
  • Pointing devices
    • mouse, TrackPoint, touchpad, trackball
  • Readers
    • bar-code readers, document scanners, light pens
  • Cameras
  • Phone interfaces
output devices
Output devices
  • Video screen/monitor
  • Printer
  • Sound card/speaker
storage devices
Storage devices
  • Hard drives
  • Floppy drives
  • ZIP drives
  • Pen drives
  • CD/DVD drives
  • Magnetic tape
optical drives
Optical drives
  • Metallic surface has lots of little pits
  • Disk rotates at very high speed
  • Read by laser beam; 32x drives has 32
  • CD-RW use more powerful laser to burn crystal surface, changing reflectivity
  • DVD has much more capacity than CD because pits are closer (and speed is faster)
most important peripheral
Most important peripheral
  • The network card
  • … or the cable modem, wireless card, etc.
  • This needs a lecture all to itself
choosing hardware
Choosing hardware
  • New computers very expensive (Moore’s law, remember?)
  • New computers not reliable
  • Old computers may be obsolete or not supported any more
  • Pg. 93 of textbook lists 9 C’s of criteria
  • Rule of thumb: Buy what you need today.