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  2. MAJOR ASPECTS Social Problems in India Gender Diversity– Poiltics Meaning of Gender Division Discrimination in Domestic (Private) Discrimination in Politics (Public) Sexual Division of Labour Different ways of Discrimination Political representation of Women Eg : Countries prompting the Representation Meaning- Feminist/ Patriarchy. (page-42,43,44)

  3. Religious diversity in POLITICS Meaning- Communalism/ Communal Politics Different forms of Communal Politics Why the communal problem more acute. Gandhiji’s views on Religion How can religion positively in Politics Meaning- Secularism/ family laws Constitutional aspects for a Secular State. Major Religions of India/ Pak/ Nepal/ Srilanka

  4. CASTE DIVERSITY IN POLITICS Meaning & Percentage- SC & ST Caste hierarchy in India Caste inequalities in India Caste alone cannot determine the election Role of Politics in Caste Various forms of Caste in Politics Various forms of Politics in Caste Negative results of Caste in India Meaning- Occupational mobility/ Caste hierarchy Text book – Page No: 50 & 52

  5. Meaning- Gender discrimination It is a form of hierarchical social division. This division is natural and unchangeable. This is not based on biology but on Social expectation and stereotypes.

  6. Gender discrimination- Private/ domestic • The children are brought up to believe that the responsibility of women house work and bringing up children. • This is reflected in Sexual Division of Labour. • Women are engage- cooking, cleaning, washing clothes, tailoring and looking up children. • Men engaged- Out side works • Village- fetch water, collect fuel and work in the field. • Urban- Poor woman works as a helper in middle class homes. • Majority of women do some sort of paid job in addition to their domestic labour. • But their work is not valued and does not get consideration.

  7. GENDER DISCRIMINATION – PUBLIC/ POLITICS • The gender imbalances and division of labour reflecting in the public life especially in Politics. • Earlier- men were allowed to participate in public affairs, vote and contest for public offices. • Women in different parts of the World- organised and agitated for equal rights. • As a result many countries extended voting rights to women. • These agitations- enhanced political and legal status, improved their educational and career opportunities. • Especially- Sweden, Norway and Finland participation of women in public life very high to compare with India.

  8. Meaning- sexual division of labour A system in which all work inside the home is either done by the women of the family, or organised by them through the domestic helpers. The work is divided between the males & females according to their gender. The division of work is not based on the physical capability. This division is based on Gender. Generally all un paid house hold work is assigned to the females and males are supposed to go out for work and earn money for the family. But the work done by women is not considered essential. If the men and women engage in the same work the men getting more salary. All important decision in family and society are taken by male members.

  9. Which are the major aspects and areas the females in India facing the discrimination and disadvantages? (or) • Discuss the factors why women still lag behind men in India. (or) • “Women in India continue to be discriminated leading to their unequal position in the Society”- justify with suitable examples

  10. The division of labour based on gender of a person is common in India. • The women engage in household work and men engage in go out of the work. • The work done by women not paid & recognised. • However the role of women in the society has changed in recent times through the education and awareness. • Despite that women in India lag behind men. The Indian society still male dominated society and women discriminated and oppressed in various ways. • Especially- Education Proportion of Women in paid jobs Preference for male child Crime against women

  11. 1. EDUCATION • The literacy rate of women is still lower than men. • The literacy rate 54% against 76% literacy among men. • The boys education is still preferred over sending a girl child to the school. • Spending money for boys education is considered more important than spending money on a girls education. • The higher education percentage and drop out rate is higher among girls. 2. Proportion of women in Paid Job • Women still have a small share in the highly paid job. • Even if a woman works more numbers of hour than man, her work is not given importance. • This result in low paid jobs and low valued jobs for women

  12. 3. Preference for Male Child • Indian parents preferring male child than female child in the family. • Female child considered as a burden as the parents will have to earn for her dowry to marry her. • But the boy child considered as the asset of the family, who will earn and increase the family income. • This preference leading to the social evil female foeticide where a girl child is killed even before she is born. 4. Crimes Against Women • Women are harassed and exploited at the work place and at home. • The domestic violence against women which make her unsafe even in her family.

  13. Political representation of women in india • In India traditionally women has assigned only the household works. • Also had no more attention in the girls education. • As a result the woman had no role in the politics. • All the decision in family and society only taken by males. • This led to the women oriented movt all over the world which demanded Social, Political and Economic rights for Women. • As a result women got an opportunity in the decision making and they became the representatives. • To ensure a free share of women in the governance of India certain reservation have been made for the women.

  14. In India women strength in Loksabha is less than 10% and in the state assemblies less than 5% • It is legally binding to have one third of seats in local government (Panchayati Raj) bodies are reserved for women. • As a result 10 lakh elected women representatives in the local government bodies. • Women organisation have been trying to have similar reservations of at least one third seats in Loksabha and the state assemblies. • This bill has now in the consideration of Parliament

  15. Countries promoting women representation • Sweden • Norway • Finland

  16. FEMINIST A Woman or Man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for Woman and Man. PATRIARCHY Literly rule by father, this concept is used to a system that values men more and gives them power over women.

  17. Religious diversity in POLITICS Meaning- Communalism/ Communal Politics Different forms of Communal Politics Why the communal problem more acute. Gandhiji’s views on Religion How can religion positively adopt in Politics Meaning- Secularism/ family laws Constitutional aspects for a Secular State. Major Religions of Eng/ Pak/ Nepal/ Srilanka

  18. COMMUNALISM Communalism means attempts to promote religious ideas between group of people as identified as different communities. COMMUNAL POLITICS The use of religion in Politics where one religion is shown as superior to other religion is called communal politics. Here one religious group is against the other religious group and demands of one religious group are against the demands of other religious group.

  19. different forms of communalism in Politics Communalism means promoting the ideas of one religion and undermining the ideas of other religions. It leads to the division in society. It believes that people belonging to different religions and communities cannot live together in one nation. The various forms of Communalism in Politics are.. 1.Religious ideas of the people: The people often believe that the ideas of their religion are superior to the ideas of other religion. The idea, ideals and interest of a particular religion are given more importance. The demands of a religious groups are against the demand of other religious groups.

  20. 2. Demands for maximum representation : People of particular religion often want the maximum representation of their religion in the politics. This often results in domination of those belonging to the majority community. People of minority community, then demand a separate state for themselves. 3. Communal level political Mobilization: It involves the sacred religious symbols and religious leaders to appeal to the people of that religion. It attempts to bring all the people of one religion together. The political leaders pay special attention to the demands of their own religion at the cost of the other religion.

  21. 4. Riots and Violence: The people from various religions are in opposition to each other and they use violence to show the domination of their religion. People demand separate state for separate religions and it leads to division of the country on the communal lines.

  22. Why communal problem more acute • Religion is used in politics as an exclusive power where people belonging to different religions are treated differently. • The demands of one religion are against the demand of another religion and there is a feeling of distruct among the people of different religion. • The beliefs and ideas of one religion are shown to be superior to the beliefs and the ideas of another religion. • State power is used to show the domination of one religion as against the other religion.

  23. Gandhiji’s views about religion • Gandhiji did not consider religion as Hinduism, Islam or Christianity. • According to him every religion was based on some belief system supported by rituals. • To him religion was a human institution that helped people solve the practical affairs. • He believed that the moral values drawn from all the religions should be used to guide the political system.

  24. How religion positively used in politics • Gandhiji- moral values of all the religions are guide to the political system. • All the religions have some belief system and ethics- it should be used in politics. • Ideas, Ideals and values should have a place in politics. • Also the leaders should regulate the religion should ensure that it is not used for discrimination and oppression. • However the religion use in politics- with careful thought and analysis. • Religion should be used to bind the people together and not to arouse feeling of distruct and suspicion

  25. SECULARISM Secular means being neutral on matters of belief and gives no special preference to any religion. Secularism involves giving the freedom to people to follow the religion of their choice. The state treats every religions equally. FAMILY LAWS Those laws that deal with family related matters such as marriage, divorce, adoption, inheritance etc. In our country different family laws apply to followers of different religions.

  26. Constitutional provisions in India with respect to religion (or)constitutional provisions that make India secular state • Meaning of Secularism • The makers of Indian constitution makers very aware about the challenges of communalism. • They chose the model of secular state. • This choice reflected in several constitutional provisions.

  27. 1. There is no official religion for the state. Unlike the status of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, that of Islam in Pakistan and Christianity in England. Our constitution does not give a special status to any religion. 2. The constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to accept, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any. 3. The constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion. 4. At the same time, the constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. Eg: it bans untouchability. Page No: 50 (Social and Religious Diversity of India)

  28. CASTE DIVERSITY IN POLITICS Meaning & Percentage- SC & ST Caste inequalities in India- Analysis Role of Caste in Politics Various forms of Caste in Politics Caste alone cannot determine the election Various forms of Politics in Caste Meaning- Occupational mobility/ Caste hierarchy

  29. Difference between sc & st Scheduled Castes Enjoying some special status by the constitution of India. They were considered as Out Caste in the Hindu social order. They have been denied the access to various resources and given only low status work. Scheduled Tribes (Adivasi) The ST included those communities who were self sufficient and lived in hills and forests. They were not allowed to live with the rest of the society and were also not given equal opportunities of work.

  30. Caste inequalities in india • Unlike the gender and religion- caste division is special in India. • All societies have some social inequalities and some form of division of labour. • Most societies- occupations are passed from one generations to another, it is an extreme form of caste system. • Members of the same caste group were supposed to form a social community that practced the same or similar occupation married within the caste group and did not eat with members from other caste group.

  31. caste system was based on exclusion of and discrimination against the outcaste groups. They were subjected to the inhuman practice of untouchability. Some Political & Social Leaders Gandhiji, JotibaPhule, B.R.Ambedkar, PeriarRamaswamy Naicker. Caste system in Modern India As a result of the economic development, large scale urbanisation, growth of literacy and education, Occupational mobility and weaking of the position of landlords in the villages, old notions of caste hierarchy are breaking down.

  32. The constitution of India prohibited any caste based discrimination and laid the foundations of policies to reverse the injustice of the caste system. Some visible form of caste system in Modern India • However the caste system not disappeared from India. • Most people they are marrying their own caste and tribe. • Untouchability not has not ended completely, despite constitutional prohibition. • The caste group that had access to education under the old system have done very well. • Those group that did not have access to education or were prohibited from acquiring it have naturally lagged behind. (page No : 52)

  33. Role of caste in politics Under the caste system, work is divided among the people on the base of their caste. Occupations are passed from one generation to another. Every caste group have exclusive occupations. In politics, members of the same caste are to be believed to be from the same community. It is assumed that they will have same interest, ideas and demands. It is also believed that people from different communities to not share any ideas and ideals.

  34. Various forms of caste in politics • When parties choose candidates in elections, they keep in mind the caste composition of the electorate and nominate candidates from different castes so as to muster necessary support to win elections. When the govt are formed, political parties are usually take care that representatives of different caste and tribes find a place in it. • Political parties and candidates in election make appeal to caste sentiment to muster support. Some political parties are known to favour some castes and are seen their representatives.

  35. 3. One person, one vote system means that every single vote is important for the political parties to win the elections. This has resulted in political parties paying special attention to various caste groups. Caste which were considered inferior cannot be ignored anymore since their votes also count in the elections.

  36. caste in politics in can some times can give an impression that election are all about caste and nothing else- That is far from true- Examine (or) In India the caste alone cannot determine election result- Why? 1. No parliamentary constituency in India has a clear majority of one single caste. So every candidates and party needs to win the confidence of more than one caste and community to win the election.

  37. 2. No party wins the vote of all the voters of a caste or community. When people say that a caste is a vote bank of one party, it is usually means that a large proportion of the voters from that caste vote for that party. 3. Many political parties may put up candidates from the same caste. Some voters have more than one candidate from their caste while many voters have more than one candidate from their caste while many voters have no candidate from their caste. 4. The ruling party and the sitting MP or MLA frequently lose election in our country. That could not have happened in all castes and communities were frozen in their political preference. 5. In the case of some voters they have strong commitment their political parties than their community and caste. 6. The people with in the same caste have different taste based on their economic condition.

  38. Role of politics in caste (or) Different form of politics in caste The politics too influence the caste system and caste identities bringing them in political sphere. Caste - Politics Politics - Caste (two way relation) 1. Each caste group tries to become bigger by incorporating within it neighbouring caste or sub caste which were earlier excluded from it.

  39. 2. Various caste groups are required to enter in to a coalition with other castes or communities and thus enter in to a dialogue and negotiation. 3. New caste groups have come up in the political sphere like backward and forward caste group. (page no 54)

  40. URBANISATION Shift of population from rural area to urban areas. OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY Shift from one occupation to another, usually when a new generation takes up occupations other than those practiced by their ancestors. CASTE HIERARCHY A ladder like formation in which all the caste groups are placed from the highest to the lower castye.

  41. Important • Meanings • Gandhiji- view of religion • Constitutional aspects- Secularism • Different forms of Gender in Politics. • Different forms of Religion in politics. • Different forms of caste in politics • Different forms of politics in caste • Social evils in India. Text book Questions.