Implementing occupational hazards intervention program for small farms
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Implementing Occupational Hazards Intervention Program for Small Farms. Emmanuel Iyiegbuniwe, PhD Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, KY 42101. Introduction Health Problem Definition.

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Implementing occupational hazards intervention program for small farms l.jpg

Implementing Occupational Hazards Intervention Program for Small Farms

Emmanuel Iyiegbuniwe, PhD

Western Kentucky University

Bowling Green, KY 42101

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


Introduction health problem definition l.jpg
Introduction Small FarmsHealth Problem Definition

  • Farming ranks among the most hazardous occupations and small farmers experience a high risk of injuries, illnesses, and diseases

  • Farmers develop more lost-time injuries, less production, & increased medical expenses

  • Many chronic diseases and health disorders in farming communities often take time to manifest

  • Children and adolescents of farmers are also at risk of developing injuries, diseases & illnesses

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


Problem statement l.jpg
Problem Statement Small Farms

  • Contributing variables

    • Exposures to chemical and biological hazards

    • Physical hazards from farm machinery and equipment

  • Compounding variables

    • Recreational exposures

    • Demographics: age, sex, gender, etc.

    • Mounting pressures on small farmers to learn new ways to generate income (alternative enterprises, marketing strategies, and management skills)

  • Inadequate resources to implement effective health and safety prevention and control

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


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Behavior Over Time Small Farms

  • Number of U.S. small farmers has remained stable over time (USDA)

  • The relatively stable farm count reflects exits and entries essentially in balance

  • Available resources, incidence and prevalence of occupational diseases are increasing

  • No federal occupational health and safety regulations for small family farms

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


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Behavior Over Time, cont’d Small Farms

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


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Causal Loop Diagram Small Farms

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


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National Goals Supported Small Farms

  • CDC’s Healthy People 2010 goals

    • Healthy People in Healthy Places - promoting and protecting the health and safety of workers

    • 10 Essential Environmental Health Services - Assessment (monitoring & investigation of health hazards), Information, Education and Enforcement

  • National Public Health Research Strategy by creating and disseminating knowledge

  • APHA’s guidelines on core competencies for practitioners in local health departments

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


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Methodology Small Farms

  • Key Stakeholders

    • 12-15 farmers in 4 South-central Kentucky counties

    • Western Kentucky University

      • Department of Public Health

      • Department of Agriculture

      • Agricultural Exposition Center

  • Study Design

    • Survey questionnaire to elicit demographic information, exposure history and use of protective equipment

    • Environmental sampling: planting and growing season

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


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Next Steps Small Farms

  • Environmental monitoring of selected farmers

    • Chicken operation

    • Dairy farms, Hog and Cattle operation

    • Farm shops

  • Data analysis of survey questionnaire and environmental samples

    • Descriptive statistics & frequency distributions (SPSS)

    • Categorical data analysis (ANOVA) and T-tests

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


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Expected Outcomes Small Farms

  • Implementation of intervention options

    • Feasible engineering controls, substitution and the use of personal protective equipment

    • Effective program would increase small farmers’ awareness of occupational hazards

  • Results would contribute to the field of literature on occupational hazards among small farmers

  • Results of risk factors will assist policy-makers in developing rational policies for this special and underserved socioeconomic group.

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


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Acknowledgments Small Farms

  • Special thanks to

    • CDC-EPHLI staff, mentors, speakers and trainers

    • Daneen Farrow-Collier (mentor) & David Stroh (faculty)

    • EPHLI Cohort 3 Fellows

    • Western Kentucky University (David Dunn, Steve Nagy Gary English, Wayne Higgins, Chris Nagy & Jack Rudolph)

  • The project was supported in part by a 2007 Pilot Research Grant Award from NIOSH/University of Cincinnati

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


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References Small Farms

  • U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2002 Census of Agriculture, Vol. 1: Geographic Area Series, Part 51: United States Summary and State Data, AC97-A-51, June 2004.

  • United States Department of Agriculture. A Time to Act: A Report of the USDA National Commission on Small Farms. USDA Miscellaneous Publication 1545, 1998.

  • US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census: 1990 CP-2-1. 1990 Census of Population, Social and Economic Characteristics, United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1993.

  • U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy. Characteristics of Small Business Employees and Owners 1997, January 1998.

  • NIOSH. “Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure.” Revised criteria 1998. Cincinnati, OH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/98-126.html (accessed January 15, 2008).

  • Senge P, Kleiner A, Roberts C, Ross R, Smith B. The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building A Learning Organization. New York, NY: DoubleDay, 1994.

  • NIOSH. “National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA).” National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Pub No. 96-115, Cincinnati, OH, 1996.

  • US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition Volume II). Washington, DC: January 2000.

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008


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