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Implementing Occupational Hazards Intervention Program for Small Farms. Emmanuel Iyiegbuniwe, PhD Western Kentucky University Bowling Green, KY 42101. Introduction Health Problem Definition.

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implementing occupational hazards intervention program for small farms

Implementing Occupational Hazards Intervention Program for Small Farms

Emmanuel Iyiegbuniwe, PhD

Western Kentucky University

Bowling Green, KY 42101

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008

introduction health problem definition
IntroductionHealth Problem Definition
  • Farming ranks among the most hazardous occupations and small farmers experience a high risk of injuries, illnesses, and diseases
  • Farmers develop more lost-time injuries, less production, & increased medical expenses
  • Many chronic diseases and health disorders in farming communities often take time to manifest
  • Children and adolescents of farmers are also at risk of developing injuries, diseases & illnesses

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008

problem statement
Problem Statement
  • Contributing variables
    • Exposures to chemical and biological hazards
    • Physical hazards from farm machinery and equipment
  • Compounding variables
    • Recreational exposures
    • Demographics: age, sex, gender, etc.
    • Mounting pressures on small farmers to learn new ways to generate income (alternative enterprises, marketing strategies, and management skills)
  • Inadequate resources to implement effective health and safety prevention and control

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008

behavior over time
Behavior Over Time
  • Number of U.S. small farmers has remained stable over time (USDA)
  • The relatively stable farm count reflects exits and entries essentially in balance
  • Available resources, incidence and prevalence of occupational diseases are increasing
  • No federal occupational health and safety regulations for small family farms

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008

behavior over time cont d
Behavior Over Time, cont’d

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008

causal loop diagram
Causal Loop Diagram

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008

national goals supported
National Goals Supported
  • CDC’s Healthy People 2010 goals
    • Healthy People in Healthy Places - promoting and protecting the health and safety of workers
    • 10 Essential Environmental Health Services - Assessment (monitoring & investigation of health hazards), Information, Education and Enforcement
  • National Public Health Research Strategy by creating and disseminating knowledge
  • APHA’s guidelines on core competencies for practitioners in local health departments

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008

methodology
Methodology
  • Key Stakeholders
    • 12-15 farmers in 4 South-central Kentucky counties
    • Western Kentucky University
      • Department of Public Health
      • Department of Agriculture
      • Agricultural Exposition Center
  • Study Design
    • Survey questionnaire to elicit demographic information, exposure history and use of protective equipment
    • Environmental sampling: planting and growing season

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008

next steps
Next Steps
  • Environmental monitoring of selected farmers
    • Chicken operation
    • Dairy farms, Hog and Cattle operation
    • Farm shops
  • Data analysis of survey questionnaire and environmental samples
    • Descriptive statistics & frequency distributions (SPSS)
    • Categorical data analysis (ANOVA) and T-tests

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008

expected outcomes
Expected Outcomes
  • Implementation of intervention options
    • Feasible engineering controls, substitution and the use of personal protective equipment
    • Effective program would increase small farmers’ awareness of occupational hazards
  • Results would contribute to the field of literature on occupational hazards among small farmers
  • Results of risk factors will assist policy-makers in developing rational policies for this special and underserved socioeconomic group.

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Special thanks to
    • CDC-EPHLI staff, mentors, speakers and trainers
    • Daneen Farrow-Collier (mentor) & David Stroh (faculty)
    • EPHLI Cohort 3 Fellows
    • Western Kentucky University (David Dunn, Steve Nagy Gary English, Wayne Higgins, Chris Nagy & Jack Rudolph)
  • The project was supported in part by a 2007 Pilot Research Grant Award from NIOSH/University of Cincinnati

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008

references
References
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service. 2002 Census of Agriculture, Vol. 1: Geographic Area Series, Part 51: United States Summary and State Data, AC97-A-51, June 2004.
  • United States Department of Agriculture. A Time to Act: A Report of the USDA National Commission on Small Farms. USDA Miscellaneous Publication 1545, 1998.
  • US Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census: 1990 CP-2-1. 1990 Census of Population, Social and Economic Characteristics, United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1993.
  • U.S. Small Business Administration, Office of Advocacy. Characteristics of Small Business Employees and Owners 1997, January 1998.
  • NIOSH. “Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Noise Exposure.” Revised criteria 1998. Cincinnati, OH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/98-126.html (accessed January 15, 2008).
  • Senge P, Kleiner A, Roberts C, Ross R, Smith B. The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building A Learning Organization. New York, NY: DoubleDay, 1994.
  • NIOSH. “National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA).” National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Pub No. 96-115, Cincinnati, OH, 1996.
  • US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (Conference Edition Volume II). Washington, DC: January 2000.

EPHLI Cohort 3 - February 26, 2008