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Water and Electrolyte Balance. Water. 60% - 90% of BW in most life forms 2/3 intracellular fluid 1/3 extracellular fluid plasma lymph interstitial fluid gut. Dehydration. Occurs when fluid loss exceeds intake sweating vs time Fluid lost mostly from ECF

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water
Water
  • 60% - 90% of BW in most life forms
  • 2/3 intracellular fluid
  • 1/3 extracellular fluid
    • plasma
    • lymph
    • interstitial fluid
    • gut
dehydration
Dehydration
  • Occurs when fluid loss exceeds intake
    • sweating vs time
  • Fluid lost mostly from ECF
    • decreased circulating blood volume inadequate tissue perfusion, inefficient transport of substrates to muscle, and elevated HR
dehydration4
Clinical Signs

persistent elevation of HR and RR

weak pulse

poor capillary refill

muscular weakness, tremors

depression

weak pulse, staggering

muscle cramps

Treatment

IV or oral fluids and electrolytes

Dehydration
estimates of fluid loss
Estimates of Fluid Loss
  • Weigh animal before and after exercise
    • 1 kg = 1 L
    • loss of 3% of BW = reduce performance
    • loss of 10% of BW = serious, possibly life threatening
estimates of fluid loss6
Estimates of Fluid Loss
  • Blood analysis
    • PCV and total plasma proteins
      • rise indicates dehydration
    • if PCV > 50% indicates hazardous fluid loss
detecting dehydration
Detecting Dehydration
  • Skin pinch test
    • falls back instantly - normal
    • 2 - 4 sec - moderate
    • 4 -6 sec - severe
  • Capillary refill
    • press finger on gums above an upper tooth
      • if it takes longer than 2 seconds for blood to return - dehydration
electrolytes
Electrolytes
  • Salt that dissociates in solution into electrically charged particles (ions)
    • cations - positive charge
    • anions - negative charge
  • Function in fluid balance, transmission of nerve impulses, and muscular activity
electrolytes9
Electrolytes
  • Na, K, Cl
    • ICF predominate cation is K
    • ECF predominate cation is Na
    • determines water distribution between compartments
electrolyte replacement
Electrolyte Replacement
  • Sweat is hypertonic
    • 100 mEq Na:30 mEq K: 130 mEq Cl
    • small amounts of Ca, Mg, and Zn also lost
    • Electrolyte loss is easily replaced by dietary means if sweat is sparse or infrequent
electrolyte replacement11
Electrolyte Replacement
  • Electrolyte supplementation recommended if sweating is frequent
    • also in hot and humid weather
  • Dietary electrolytes should replace ions lost in sweat in correct proportions
    • water or feed
dietary considerations
Dietary Considerations
  • Type of hay
    • legume vs grass
  • DCAD - dietary cation anion balance
    • strong and weak cations vs anions
strong ions
Cations

Na+

K+

Ca2+

Mg2+

Anions

Cl-

SO42-

lactic acid

Strong Ions
na k atpase pump
Na/K ATPase Pump

Lehninger, 1993

stewart 1981
Stewart (1981)
  • Concept of electrolytes as critical factors in acid/base balance
  • Strong ion difference (SID)
    • sum of all strong cations minus sum of all strong anions (NA, K, CL, SO42-)
    • anions greater = negative SID = H+ > OH-
    • cations greater = positive SID = OH- > H+
stewart 198116
Stewart (1981)
  • Balance of SID is maintained by the dissociation and reassociation of water
h dependent variable
H+ = Dependent Variable
  • Three independent variables determine the value of H+:
    • SID
    • Pco2
      • H increases as Pco2 increases
        • CO2 acts as an acid
    • Total concentration of weak acids (plasma proteins)
      • H increases as weak acids increase
regulation of ph
Long Term

Kidney

regulates electrolytes

primarily Na

GI tract

absorption of cations and anions

dependent of needs

Rapid

Lung

releases CO2 (HCO3-)

Regulation of pH
altering acid base balance
Altering Acid Base Balance
  • DCAD diets
  • Sodium bicarbonate administration
    • IV vs GI
    • effect of other sodium forms
  • Furosemide