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The Human Body. 7 th Grade Science Grovetown Middle School. Table of Contents –Write on back of Cover Page. Body Organization 1 Types of Tissues 2 Sexual and Asexual Reproduction 3 Skeletal System 4-5 Muscular System 6-7 Integumentary System 8-9

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the human body

The Human Body

7th Grade Science

Grovetown Middle School

table of contents write on back of cover page
Table of Contents –Write on back of Cover Page

Body Organization 1

Types of Tissues 2

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction 3

Skeletal System 4-5

Muscular System 6-7

Integumentary System 8-9

Cardiovascular System 10-11

table of contents cont
Table of Contents (cont)

Lymphatic System 12-13

Nervous System 14-15

Respiratory System 16-17

Digestive System 18-19

Urinary System 20-21

Endocrine System 22-23

How do you see? 24

table of contents cont4
Table of Contents (cont)

How do you hear? 25

How do you taste? 26

How do you smell? 27

How do you touch? 28

What causes diseases? 29

Defending against diseases 30-31

Glossary 32-33

Extra Credit Page 34

body organization and types of tissues
Body Organization and Types of Tissues
  • Bodies must maintain homeostasis, a stable internal environment, in order to survive
  • Cells form tissues form organs form organ systems form organisms Draw a picture for each – Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism
  • Four Types of Body Tissue Picture pg 440
    • Epithelial – covers and protects under layers of tissue – stick tightly together forming a continuous sheet
    • Nervous – electrical signals through body
    • Muscle – cells that can contract and relax to produce movement
    • Connective – joins, supports, protects, insulates, nourishes, and cushions organs
asexual reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
  • Only one parent and the offspring is genetically identical to the parent.
  • Types of asexual reproduction
    • Binary fission – mitosis – when a cell divides (draw this picture for this page 98-99)
    • Budding – when new cell grows out of the body of the parent and breaks off to form a new organism
    • Vegetative reproduction – occurs in plants when sections of the plant are removed and planted – a new plant grows identical to the parent
sexual reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
  • Two parents are needed
  • Genetic material is combined to produce an organism that is genetically different from the parents
  • Genetics can be predicted using a Punnet Square
  • Sex cells contain ½ the number of chromosomes that a regular cell contains
  • Sex cells are formed through meiosis (draw this picture for this page 128-129)
skeletal system
Skeletal System
  • Function of the System
    • Protects heart, lungs, spinal cord, and brain
    • Stores minerals for proper functioning and fat for energy
    • Anchors muscles to produce movement
    • Makes blood cells
skeletal system9
Skeletal System
  • Vocabulary picture pg 449
    • Compact bone – no visible open space
    • Spongy bone – many open spaces – provides most of the strength and support
    • Marrow – soft tissue inside bones
      • Red marrow produces red blood cells
      • Yellow marrow stores fat
skeletal system10
Skeletal System
  • Joint – place where 2 or more bones come together
    • Sliding joints – allow hand bones to glide over one another
    • Ball and socket – allows movement in all directions – shoulder
    • Hinge – flex joint about 180 degrees – knees and elbows
    • Fixed joints allow no movement – plates in skull
    • Picture pg 446
skeletal system11
Skeletal System
  • Ligaments – connect bones for movement
  • Injuries and Diseases
    • Strained ligaments - heal
    • torn ligaments need surgery
    • Arthritis - Cartilage between bones wears away
    • Bones can be cracked or broken
muscular system
Muscular System
  • Function of the System
    • To move, send electrical signals from brain to skeletal muscle – muscle responds by expanding or contracting
    • Voluntary muscles – under your control – hand/arm/leg movement
    • Involuntary muscles – not under control – heartbeat, blinking, breathing
    • Muscles work in pairs – flexor bends – extensor straightens
muscular system13
Muscular System
  • Vocabulary picture pg 453
  • Three types of muscle tissue
    • Smooth muscle – digestive tract and blood vessels
    • Cardiac muscle – heart
    • Skeletal muscle – attached to bones for movement
  • Tendons – connect muscles to bones
  • Injuries and Diseases
    • Muscles and tendons can be over stretched or torn
    • Muscles can cramp
    • Anabolic steroids resemble testosterone – this builds muscle mass – it frequently kills its users by stopping the heart, liver and kidneys
integumentary system
Integumentary System
  • Function of the system
    • Protects – keeps moisture in body and foreign particles out
    • Nerve endings help you feel
    • Regulates body temperature – sweat glands cool skin
    • Get rid of waste – through sweat glands and keeps the body cool
    • Produces Vitamin D to help with digestion
integumentary system15
Integumentary System
  • Vocabulary
  • Skin – picture pg 460
    • Epidermis – thin outside layer of skin – most cells are dead epithelial tissue and contain keratin which makes skin tough - Melanin determines skin color – more melanin darker the skin – absorbs harmful radiation
    • Dermis – thick inside layer of skin – connective tissue made of collagen – provides strength and the ability to bend without tearing
integumentary system16
Integumentary System
  • Blood vessels – regulate body temp
  • Nerves – carry messages to and from brain
  • Muscle fiber – contracts the hair causing it to stand up
  • Hair follicles – produce hair
  • Oil glands – release oil to keep flexible – waterproofs the epidermis
  • Sweat glands – cools skin and removes waste
integumentary system17
Integumentary System
  • Hair protects from ultraviolet light, protects from dust and insects, and help regulate body temperature
  • Nails protect tips of fingers and toes – form from base and sides
  • Injuries and Diseases
    • Cuts, scrapes, and burns
    • Skin Cancer – uncontrolled cell division in skin when exposed too often to the sun
    • Sunburn
    • Can get diseases if not kept clean and dry
cardiovascular system circulatory system
Cardiovascular System (Circulatory System)
  • Function of the system
    • To carry oxygenated blood to the cells and take away waste from the cells.
    • Helps to fight disease
  • Vocabulary
  • Blood is connective tissue that is made of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets that float in plasma – the liquid part of blood
  • 4 blood types
    • A – A antigens
    • B – B antigens
    • AB has both antigens – can get any type of blood – universal recipient
    • O has neither antigen – can be given to anyone – universal donor
  • Red blood cells supply oxygen - RBC’s contain hemoglobin – protein that clings to oxygen RBC’s are made in the bone marrow and replaced every 4 months
cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular System
  • Picture pg 511
  • Blood vessels - hollow tubes that transport blood
  • Arteries – take blood away from the heart – they have thick walls to handle the pressure and this is where you feel your pulse
  • Capillaries – allows material to diffuse through the wall to cells and back
  • Veins – take blood back to heart
cardiovascular system20
Cardiovascular System
  • Picture pg 517
  • White blood cells – destroy pathogens – bacteria, viruses etc. WBC’s surround the pathogen and destroy it or they release antibodies – chemicals that destroy them. WBC’s made in bone marrow and in lymphatic organs
  • Platelets – clump together in damaged area to prevent blood loss – blood clot – made in bone marrow and only live 5-10 days
cardiovascular system21
Cardiovascular System
  • Picture pg 509
  • Pulmonary circulation – when blood is transported between heart and lungs
  • Systemic Circulation – when blood is transported from the heart to the rest of the body
cardiovascular system22
Cardiovascular System
  • Injuries and Diseases
    • Atherosclerosis – when cholesterol builds up inside blood vessels – become narrower and less elastic – causes heart attacks
    • Hypertension – abnormally high blood pressure
    • Stroke - when blood vessels in the brain become clogged or rupture
    • Heart Attack – blood vessels in the heart are blocked – the heart can’t work so it begins a seizure in the heart and it eventually stops
lymphatic system
Lymphatic System
  • Function of the system
    • Collects excess fluids and returns them to the blood stream and fights pathogens
  • Vocabulary picture pg 521
  • Lymph – fluid and particles absorbed by the lymph capillaries
  • Lymph Nodes – small bean-shaped organs where particles are removed from lymph
  • Lymphatic vessels – larger vessels with valves to prevent backflow
lymphatic system24
Lymphatic System
  • Thymus – located just above heart – releases WBC’s to travel to other areas
  • Spleen – largest lymph organ – upper left side of abdomen – filters blood and releases WBC’s
  • Tonsils – located in back of nasal cavity and back of tongue defend against infection
  • Injuries and Diseases
    • swelling of lymph nodes commonly called “swollen glands”
    • Lymphomas – cancer of the lymphatic system
    • enlarged spleen and tonsillitis.
nervous system
Nervous System
  • Function of the system
    • Gathers information about what is happening inside and outside the body
    • interprets information and directs the body to respond
    • Provides for reflex actions – a quick involuntary action to prevent injury to a body part
  • Vocabulary picture pg 603
  • Central Nervous System – brain and spinal cord
  • Peripheral Nervous System – nerves that connect to central nervous system
nervous system26
Nervous System
  • Peripheral system contains picture pg 598
    • Neurons – cells that transfer messages
      • Cell body – contains nucleus and organelles
      • Dendrites – branched extensions that receives messages
      • Axon – fiber that transports information
      • Axon terminal – tip of axon that connects to dendrite
    • Impulses – the messages
nervous system27
Nervous System
  • Two types of Neurons
    • Sensory - gathers info and sends to central nervous system uses receptors
    • Motor neurons – how muscles get the impulses to move
  • Nerves – bundles of axons that extend throughout the body
nervous system28
Nervous System
  • Central Nervous System picture pg 605
    • Brain – largest organ in system – controls voluntary and involuntary actions – contains 3 parts
      • Cerebrum – largest part – dome shaped part where you think and where most memories are stored – controls voluntary movement
      • Cerebellum – second largest part – receives sensory impulses from muscles and joints – keeps track of body position
      • Medulla – connects brain to spinal cord – controls involuntary actions
nervous system29
Nervous System
  • Spinal Cord - contains neurons and axon bundles from the brain – surrounded by vertebrae for protection. Enables brain to communicate with peripheral nervous system
nervous system30
Nervous System
  • Injuries and Diseases
    • Injury to spinal cord causes paralysis – inability to send messages to lower body
    • Concussions – bruise like injuries to the brain – soft tissue of the brain smashes into the skull – can pass out or stay awake – can happen during car accidents, bike accidents, bumping into things etc.
    • Severing nerves – cutting deep into body parts can cut nerves into pieces that cannot be healed. The person looses feeling in that part of the body
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Function of the system
    • Respiration the entire process by which a body obtains and uses oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide and water Oxygen is needed to convert food to energy
  • Vocabulary picture pg 537
    • Nose – primary passage in and out
    • Pharynx – air, food, and drink pass through this – splits into two tubes – one to lungs and one to stomach
    • Larynx – voice box – controls vocal cords which vibrate to produce sound
    • Trachea – windpipe from larynx to lungs
    • Bronchi – 2 pipes – one leads to each lung bronchioles – tiny tubes
    • Lungs – contain air – forms tiny air sacs called alveoli – capillaries get oxygen from alveoli
respiratory system32
Respiratory System
  • Diaphragm – muscle that makes you breathe
  • Alveoli – tiny sacks that hold air
  • Injuries and Diseases
    • Asthma – bronchioles constrict and secrete mucus
    • Bronchitis – irritation to lining of bronchioles
    • Pneumonia – bacteria or virus inside lungs
    • Emphysema – eroded lung tissue due to smoking
    • Lung cancer – growth of extra tissue due to smoking
digestive system
Digestive System
  • Function of the system
    • Mechanical Digestion – crushing of food into molecules
    • Chemical Digestion – molecules broken down into nutrients
    • Enzymes – breaks down nutrients into smaller particles
digestive system34
Digestive System
  • Vocabulary picture pg 487 - 488
  • Teeth – break and grind food – enamel is hardest material in body and protects nerves – saliva contains enzymes that begin chemical digestion
  • Salivary gland – makes saliva and begins chemical digestion of carbohydrates
  • Mouth – opening into the digestive system – begins mechanical and chemical digestion
  • Throat – back of the mouth where peristalsis begins
  • Esophagus – transports food to stomach using peristalsis – squeezing through with muscle contractions.
  • Stomach – enzymes and acid are produced to kill bacteria and break food down – this creates chyme – a soupy mixture
digestive system35
Digestive System
  • Small Intestine – connected to stomach – mixes chyme with fluids from liver and pancreas – most chemical digestion takes place here using villi – fingerlike projections that contain nutrient-absorbing cells – send nutrients to blood stream
digestive system36
Digestive System
  • Pancreas – makes pancreatic juice containing bicarbonates that neutralized the acid in chyme – also makes hormones to regulate blood sugar
  • Liver – makes bile to digest fat – stores nutrients – breaks down toxic substances – makes cholesterol
  • Gallbladder – stores bile from liver and transports it to the small intestine
digestive system37
Digestive System
  • Large Intestine – what is not absorbed in small intestine – reabsorbs most water and compacts solid mass called feces or stool
  • Rectum stores feces till it passes out the anus
digestive system38
Digestive System
  • Injury and Diseases
    • Heartburn – sphincters block off stomach from backflow – when it does backflow it causes the burning pain in chest
    • Constipation – when bowel movements become difficult and infrequent due to lack of water/fiber in stool
    • Diarrhea – when bowel movements are frequent and water is not removed from stool
    • Colon Cancer – uncontrolled cell division in colon
    • Gastric Ulcer - an open sore in the stomach lining
urinary system
Urinary System
  • Function of the system
    • To excrete waste – removing wastes and excess products from the body As blood travels through tissues, it collects waste from cells Blood travels to the kidneys that clean away the waste.
  • Vocabulary – picture pg 551
  • Ureter – carries urine from each kidney to the bladder
  • Bladder – holds urine for the body
  • Urethra – carries urine to the outside
  • Kidneys – bean shaped – filters harmful substances from the blood
urinary system40
Urinary System
  • Three parts in excretion
    • Skin – releases waste in sweat
    • Lungs – expel carbon dioxide and water
    • Urinary system – removes waste
  • Urine – yellow fluid that remains in nephrons
  • Bladder – stores urine for expelling
urinary system41
Urinary System
  • Injuries and Diseases
    • Hormones – control the balance of fluids entering and leaving the body
    • Feel thirsty because the salivary glands produce less saliva
    • Antidiuretic – hormone that tells kidneys to take back water from nephrons and return to bloodstream – making less urine
    • Diuretic – caffeine is one type that makes more urine
urinary system42
Urinary System
  • Injuries and Diseases cont.
    • Bacterial Infections – very painful and needs to be treated to prevent death of kidneys
    • Kidney stones – salt and waste collects inside kidneys and forms small mass which is painful to release
    • Kidney disease – when kidneys don’t function properly and blood is filtered through a machine
endocrine system
Endocrine System
  • Function of the system
    • Produces chemicals that control many of the body’s daily activities.
    • Controls long-term processes – fluid balance, growth, and sexual development using glands – groups of cells that make hormones - Hormones – chemicals that control actions somewhere else in the body
    • Epinephrine or adrenalin – speed up heartbeat and breathing
endocrine system44
Endocrine System
  • Vocabulary picture pg 639
  • Pituitary gland – secrets hormones that affect other glands
  • Adrenal gland – responds to stress and danger
  • Pancreas – regulates blood sugar
  • Thyroid – increases the rate at which you use energy
  • Parathyroid – regulates calcium
  • Thymus – regulates immune system
endocrine system46
Endocrine System
  • Injuries and Diseases
    • Insulin – made by pancreas – not enough or too much causes diabetes
    • Can give medicine if growth hormone is not produced to help with growth
    • Not enough iodine causes a thyroxine problem – the thyroid swells and causes a goiter
responding to the environment
Responding to the Environment
  • How you see picture pg 613 and 614
    • Vision – awareness of light energy
    • Eye contains
      • Pupil – adjusts light
      • Retina – light sensitive layer in back of eye
      • Rods – dim light
      • Cones – sees color
      • Iris – color part of eye
      • Lens – changes direction of light in eye to adjust focus
responding to the environment48
Responding to the Environment
  • How you hear picture pg 617
  • To hear, object vibrates which pushes on the surrounding air until it reaches the ear
  • Parts of the ear
    • Outer ear – part you see – funnels sound
    • Middle ear – eardrum moves tiny bones
      • Hammer, anvil, stirrup
      • Cochlea – snail shaped bone that converts waves to electrical impulses
    • Inner ear – sends impulses to brain
responding to the environment49
Responding to the Environment
  • How you touch
    • Not found in one specific place
    • Skin contains different types of touch receptors that respond to different types of stimuli
    • Some respond to heavy pressure and some to light pressure
    • Most that feel light pressure and texture are in the epidermis
    • Most that feel heavy pressure are in the dermis
responding to the environment50
Responding to the Environment
  • Dermis has receptors for temperature and pain
  • Pain alerts body to danger – this is VERY important
  • Nerves take sensation from the tip of the skin to the spinal column then to the brain, almost instantly, where it is processed.
responding to the environment51
Responding to the Environment
  • How you taste picture pg 619
  • Taste is the awareness of certain dissolved chemicals
  • Taste buds – receptors for taste
  • Papillae – tiny bumps on tongue that contain taste buds
  • Taste is closely related to smell
  • Olfactory cells – in upper nasal passage, react to chemicals inhaled
responding to the environment52
Responding to the Environment
  • How you smell
  • The nose has two holes called nostrils. The nostrils and the nasal passages are separated by a wall called the septum
  • Closer to the tip of your nose, the septum is made of cartilage which is flexible material that's firmer than skin or muscle.
  • Behind your nose, in the middle of your face, is a space called the nasal cavity. It connects with the back of the throat. The nasal cavity is separated from the inside of your mouth by the palate (roof of your mouth).
responding to the environment53
Responding to the Environment
  • Your nose is more than a passageway for air. The nose also warms, moistens, and filters the air before it goes to the lungs.
  • The mucus membrane (mucus and hairs in your nose) captures dust, germs, and other small particles that could irritate your lungs.
  • Up on the roof of the nasal cavity (the space behind your nose) is the olfactory epithelium which contains special receptors that are sensitive to odor molecules that travel through the air.
responding to the environment54
Responding to the Environment
  • There are hundreds of different odor receptors, each with the ability to sense certain odor molecules.
  • When the smell receptors are stimulated, signals travel along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb. This send the information brain to be interpreted as a smell you may recognize.
causes of diseases
Causes of Diseases
  • Causes of diseases
  • Noninfectious Diseases – can’t be spread from one person to another – cancer, heart disease etc.
  • Infectious Diseases – can be passed from one person to another – cold, flu etc.
  • Pathogens – bacteria or viruses that cause diseases
causes of diseases56
Causes of Diseases
  • Draw color and label Figure 2 page 564
  • How are they passed?
    • Through the air – sneezing, coughing
    • Contaminated objects – things sick people touch
    • Person to person contact – when you touch a person with the disease
    • Animals – that bite or sting
    • Food and water – contains pathogens
defending against diseases
Defending Against Diseases
  • Defend against diseases – Draw and label picture on page 571
  • How do we counter these problems?
    • Pasteurization – heating milk to kill bacteria
    • Vaccines – shots containing dead bacteria/viruses so the body can identify them when live ones enter the body
    • Antibiotics – kill pathogenic bacteria
defending against diseases58
Defending Against Diseases
  • Macrophage – engulf and eat pathogens
  • T-Cells – coordinate the immune system
  • B-Cells – make antibodies
  • Antibodies – attach to the pathogen and help with the destruction
defending against diseases59
Defending Against Diseases
  • Steps to kill pathogens
    • Macrophage shows pieces of pathogens to other cells
    • Antigens who have seen the pathogen activate the T-Cells
    • T-Cells divide to create Helper T-cells
    • Helper T-cells find a killer T-cell – the Killer T-cells start to identify and kill infected cells
defending against diseases60
Defending Against Diseases
  • Helper T-Cells now activate B-Cells
  • B-Cells make antibodies that cling to the pathogen and act as markers. When the markers are seen, immune cells and proteins swarm and attack the pathogen
  • Proteins and immune cells enter the pathogen and kill it
  • Macrophages then engulf the pathogens that were tagged and killed