the age of nation building l.
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
The Age of Nation Building

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 27

The Age of Nation Building - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

The Age of Nation Building. Politics, Diplomacy and War. Louis Napoleon as President. Winning Support After his election, Louis Napoleon was still dismissed by many as a nonentity, whose only success was due to his name

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Age of Nation Building' - Rita

Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the age of nation building

The Age of Nation Building

Politics, Diplomacy and War

louis napoleon as president
Louis Napoleon as President
  • Winning Support
    • After his election, Louis Napoleon was still dismissed by many as a nonentity, whose only success was due to his name
    • However, Louis Napoleon was a clever politician, he understood the popular forces of his time, and he was patient
    • Seizure of government (1 December 1851) and election as president for 10 years
  • Election as Emperor
    • A year later on 21 November 1852, Louis Napoleon again returned to the people to ask for a restoration of the Empire
    • 97% voted yes, and Louis Napoleon assumed the title Napoleon III, instituting the Second Empire
second napoleonic empire government
Second Napoleonic Empire: Government
  • The government was clearly authoritarian
  • As chief of state, Napoleon III controlled the military, police, and the civil service and only he could declare war and introduce legislation
second napoleonic empire government4
Second Napoleonic Empire: Government
  • The Legislative Corps (Parliament) gave a semblance of representative government as its members were elected by universal male suffrage to 6 year terms
  • However, they could not initiate legislation nor affect the budget
second napoleonic empire government5
Second Napoleonic Empire: Government
  • Stimulating the Economy
    • The first five years of Napoleon III’s reign were very successful as he and France reaped the benefits of worldwide economic prosperity as well as his own economic policies
    • Napoleon believed in using the resources of government to stimulate the national economy
  • Rebuilding Paris
    • One of Napoleon III’s great contributions was the rebuilding of Paris
    • Purpose
second napoleonic empire liberalization
Second Napoleonic Empire: Liberalization
  • By the 1860’s opposition to Napoleon began to grow and in response he liberalized his regime
  • Her reached out to the working class by legalizing trade unions and granting them the right to strike
  • Reforms to elections and the Legislative Corps
  • Napoleon even proposed a new constitution in May 1870
  • However, failures in foreign policy and the war with Prussia brought down the Second Empire before any reforms could be instituted
foreign policy and the crimean war
Foreign Policy and the Crimean War
  • Weakening of the Ottoman Empire – The Eastern Question
  • Declaration of war: October 1853 and March of 1854
  • Why war? - To protect the balance of power
  • Course of the war
  • Results of the Crimean War
unification of italy the house of savoy
Unification of Italy:The House of Savoy
  • In 1850, Austria was still the dominant power in Italy, but many Italian nationalists were placing their hopes in Piedmont
  • Piedmont, under Charles Albert, had tried during 1848-49 to unify Italy but had failed
  • They would again assume a leadership role under King Victor Emmanuel II and his PM Camillo di Cavour
camillo di cavour
Camillo di Cavour
  • Liberal minded nobleman
  • Appointed PM in 1852
  • Pursued a policy of economic expansion that would strengthen Piedmont and its army
  • However, he realized that he could not take on Austria alone so he made an alliance with France in 1858
  • Confident of success, Cavour provoked Austria into declaring war in April 1859
camillo di cavour10
Camillo di Cavour
  • In the subsequent fighting, it was the French who were responsible for defeating the Austrians and Magenta and Solferino
  • However, the French also made peace with Austria without telling their Italian ally - why?
  • With French withdrawal, Piedmont only got Lombardy
  • Cavour was furious, but events soon change to the benefit of Cavour – how?
  • Napoleon agreed to the annexations and received Nice and Savoy
garibaldi and his red shirts
Garibaldi and His Red Shirts
  • Meanwhile, a new leader of Italian unification came to the fore, Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • He was a dedicated Italian patriot who had supported Mazzini
  • Garibaldi, the Red Shirts, and Sicily (May to September 1860)
  • At this point, Cavour reentered the stage as he knew Garibaldi was marching on Rome
end game of italian unification
End Game of Italian Unification
  • Unification (1861)
    • Piedmontese forces moved into the Papal States to meet Garibaldi, who, as a patriot, yielded to Cavour rather than provoke a civil war
    • Formation of the new kingdom of Italy centered in Piedmont (17 March 1861)
  • Rome (1870)
    • However, Italian unification was still not complete
    • Venetia was only added after Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866
    • Addition of Rome (20 September 1870)
german unification prussia as the model
German Unification:Prussia as the model
  • German nationalists, in the wake of the failure of Frankfurt, soon saw Prussia and the key to German unification
  • Prussia and the Zollverein (1834)
  • Politically, Prussia had a constitution with the appearance of a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature
  • Problem: Strong monarchy
german unification william i
German Unification:William I
  • Came to the thrown in 1861 and began a policy of strengthening the army
  • Conflict with the legislature and rejection of William’s budget
otto von bismarck and realpolitik
Otto von Bismarck and Realpolitik
  • In response, William appointed Otto von Bismarck as PM and he would remain so until 1890, dominating both German & European politics
  • Characteristics of Bismarck
  • In 1862, he resubmitted the budget, but it was again defeated
otto von bismarck and realpolitik16
Otto von Bismarck and Realpolitik
  • He then went ahead and collected the taxes and reorganized the army blaming the liberals for the breakdown
  • Parliament did nothing and because of their opposition, Bismarck pursued an active foreign policy that resulted in three wars and German unification under the auspices of Prussia
wars of unification danish war 1864
Wars of Unification:Danish War (1864)
  • Arose over the Danish annexation of the duchies of Schleswig & Holstein
  • Bismarck persuades Austria to join Prussia in declaring war and quickly defeat the Danes
  • Bismarck realizes that Prussia cannot expand its power with Austrian interference
  • He creates a friction over the duchies and with Austria politically isolated goads her into war
austro prussian war 1866
Austro-Prussian War (1866)
  • Many expected a quick Austrian victory, but after only six weeks of fighting, the Austrians are defeated at the battle of Königgratz
  • Results and consequences of the war
  • More importantly, Prussian success brings the liberals to Bismarck’s side and they pass a bill of indemnity legalizing all that Bismarck had done
franco prussian war 1870 1871
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
  • The final step was France
  • Bismarck knew he would have to deal with her as Napoleon III would not be willing to see a strong Germany on her borders
  • The fuse was over the succession to the vacant Spanish throne
    • The Ems Telegram
  • Course of the war
    • Battle of Sedan (September of 1870)
    • Fall of Paris (January 1871)
    • Peace Treaty, May of 1871
unification 1871
Unification (1871)
  • Before the war had ended, the south German states agreed to join the NGC
  • On 18 January 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, William I is proclaimed Kaiser of the Second Reich
unification 187121
Unification (1871)
  • German unity had been achieved through Prussia and its army, and in reality Germany had been merged into Prussia
  • Germany was now the strongest nation in Europe and a new European balance of power was at hand
nation building and reform austria
Nation Building and Reform: Austria
  • Francis Joseph and Dual Monarchy
    • After the Revolutions of 1848-49, Austria dismantled the liberal gains and resorted to authoritarian government
    • However, with each Austrian defeat, changes were made to the government
    • The greatest came in 1866 after defeat against the Prussians - the Ausgleich
  • Domination by Germans and Magyars
    • The Ausgleich only enabled each of the dominant groups (German & Magyar) to dominate the minorities, especially the Slavs, in each state
imperial russia
Imperial Russia
  • Alexander II and the Emancipation of the Serfs
    • Defeat in the Crimean War forced her to look at her deficiencies
    • Alexander II turned his energies to reforming Russia and Russian society
    • Emancipation of the serfs (3 March 1861)
  • Other Reforms
    • Zemstvos Assemblies
    • However, Alexander was not able to control all the forces unleashed by his reforms as he is assassinated in 1881
    • His successor, Alexander III resorted to more autocratic means
britain s victorian age palmerston s conservatism
Britain's Victorian Age:Palmerston's Conservatism
  • Britain was able to escape most of the tumult of 1848 because of her stability, especially in the person of Queen Victoria (1837-1901)
  • The major figure of the period was Henry John Temple, Lord Palmerston
    • PM from 1855-1865
    • Although a Whig, he crossed party lines regularly and thus could make political compromises
    • However, he was no reformer and resisted any extension of the franchise
move to reform
Move to Reform
  • With Palmerston’s death in 1865, the movement to increase the franchise only intensified
  • Although the Whigs (now the Liberals) talked about increasing the franchise, it was the Tories (now the Conservatives) who actually carried it through
disraeli and the reform of 1867
Disraeli and the Reform of 1867
  • Benjamin Disraeli and the Conservatives
  • Reform Act of 1867
    • Lowered the monetary requirements for voting, enfranchising nearly all urban male workers
    • However, the new voters favored the Liberals and produced a huge victory for them in 1868
gladstone and the liberal party
Gladstone and the Liberal Party
  • Liberal victory in 1868 brought William Gladstone to power, and during this first Liberal administration instituted many reforms
  • Legislation and government orders opened civil service positions to competitive exams rather than patronage, introduction of a secret ballot for voting, and abolished the practice of purchasing military commissions
  • The Education Act of 1870 attempted to make elementary schools available for all children