Tests of Visual-Motor Integration: Bender and the VMI - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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    1. Tests of Visual-Motor Integration: Bender and the VMI Psy 625C/CL Gary S. Katz, Ph.D.

    11. Bender Protocol Exhibiting Brain Damage Secondary to Chronic Alcoholism

    12. The Beery VMI

    13. History of Visiographic Tests Bender-Gestalt (prior slides) was developed by Lauretta Bender in 1938. Forms originally created by Wertheimer for adult testing. Koppitz developed a normed scoring system for children, but the effective age range was 5-9yrs. Reliability and validity of original Bender was questionable improved with the Bender II (not available in the testing lab right now).

    14. Beery VMI VMI: Visual Motor Integration Visual-motor integration is the degree to which visual perception and finger-hand movements are well coordinated. Most recent normative sample: 2004 2512 children between ages 1 (N=51) and 18 (N=59) broken down by yearly ages (median N = 145). Gender, Ethnicity, Residence, Geographic Region, Parent Education aligned with US Census data

    15. Beery VMI Reliability Rasch-Wright coefficients between .95 and 1.00 (measures of internal consistency for power tests) Split Half coefficients: .82 to .93 (mean = .82) Inter-observer reliability for normative sample: above .90 Psych & Resource Teachers: .98 Resource Teachers & Classroom teachers: .95 Psych & Classroom Teachers: .93

    16. Beery VMI Validity: ____ & VMI WRAVMA: .52 DTVP Copying: .75 Bender: .29 to .93; median .56 Bender II: .55 Construct Validity VMI correlates well with age (.89) WRAVMA wide range assessment of visual motor abilitiesWRAVMA wide range assessment of visual motor abilities

    17. Administering VMI Two forms Short form (ages 2 7) Long form (ages 2 18) Can be administered in group and individual assessment Preschoolers should be tested individually Children 1st grade and up can be tested in an entire class

    18. Administering VMI Child should have the test booklet, as well as a sharpened #2 pencil WITHOUT AN ERASER or a ballpoint pen. Under functional age 5, start with imitative drawing (item 4) Over functional age 5, start with copied drawing (item 7) If necessary, can drop down to spontaneous scribbling for items 1-3.

    19. Scoring VMI Each item has rigorous scoring criteria. Will need a ruler and a protractor for some items to score correctly. If the child copies an item successfully, they get one point; if not, they get zero points. Score items from basal (start point) to ceiling (three consecutive zero-point scores). Can test limits with the VMI beyond the ceiling

    20. Scoring VMI Raw scores are converted to scaled scores (Mean 100, SD 15) and percentiles. Age norms, not grade norms.