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social theories - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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social theories. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS. 1. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT LEADS TO MENTAL CONDITION LIFE EVENTS , CHRONIC STRAINS, SOCIAL ROLES 2. CURRENT ENVIRONMENT MOST IMPORTANT. ASSUMPTIONS (CONT.). 3. GROUPS HAVE DIFFERENT EXPOSURE TO STRESSORS AND RATES OF DISORDER

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basic assumptions
BASIC ASSUMPTIONS
  • 1. EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT LEADS TO MENTAL CONDITION
  • LIFE EVENTS, CHRONIC STRAINS, SOCIAL ROLES
  • 2. CURRENT ENVIRONMENT MOST IMPORTANT
assumptions cont
ASSUMPTIONS (CONT.)
  • 3. GROUPS HAVE DIFFERENT EXPOSURE TO STRESSORS AND RATES OF DISORDER
  • 4. FOCUS ON COMMUNITY POPULATIONS NOT CLINICAL CASES
i durkheim
I. DURKHEIM
  • SUICIDE (1897)
  • SUICIDE RATES VARY SYSTEMATICALLY WITH SOCIAL CONDITIONS
causes of suicide
CAUSES OF SUICIDE
  • 1. LACK OF CONNECTION TO SOCIAL GROUPS AND MEANING SYSTEMS - EGOISTIC (ALTRUISTIC)
  • 2. LACK OF CONSTRAINT OVER BEHAVIOR – ANOMIC (FATALISTIC)
  • FOCUS ON SOCIAL NOT INDIVIDUAL
ii military psychiatry
II. MILITARY PSYCHIATRY
  • LESSONS OF WWI
  • HUGE PROPORTION OF PSYCHIATRIC CASUALITIES
  • LED TO PRESCREENING OF ALL DRAFTEES IN WWII
military psychiatry
MILITARY PSYCHIATRY
  • HUGE PROPORTION OF PSYCHIATRIC CASUALTIES IN WWII
  • OVERALL 25%; OVER 70% FOR LONG STRETCHES
  • AVERAGE SOLDIER WOULD BREAKDOWN AFTER 80 DAYS OF CONTINUOUS COMBAT
effect of combat
EFFECT OF COMBAT
  • HIGHLY PRESCREENED
  • NO INDIVIDUAL PREDISPOSITIONS PREDICTED BREAKDOWNS
  • WHAT DID?
  • LENGTH OF COMBAT BEST PREDICTOR
  • CAUSE WAS ENVIRONMENTAL NOT INDIVIDUAL
effect of combat1
EFFECT OF COMBAT
  • TREATMENT NEAR UNITS
  • 2/3 RETURNED TO UNITS WITHIN 2 DAYS
  • MINORITY MORE LASTING PROBLEMS (PTSD)
major reorientation
MAJOR REORIENTATION
  • ENVIRONMENT CAUSE OF MUCH DISORDER - “EVERYONE HAS THEIR BREAKING POINT”
  • FOCUS ON ENTIRE POPULATION NOT JUST TREATED CASES
  • TREATMENT SHOULD BE IN COMMUNITY NOT HOSPITALS
iii stress theory
III. STRESS THEORY
  • AMBIGUITY OF “STRESS”
  • HERE: STRESSORS = CAUSES
  • DISTRESS = EFFECTS
hans selye
HANS SELYE
  • PHYSIOLOGIST
  • STUDIED STRESS IN ANIMALS
  • STRESS RESULTED FROM DISTURBANCES OF EQUILIBRIUM - CHANGE
selye cont
SELYE (CONT.)
  • ENVIRONMENTAL CAUSES – TEMPERATURE, FOOD, CROWDING
  • STRESSORS CAUSE PROBLEMS BY WEAKENING IMMUNE SYSTEM
  • GAS - GLOBAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME
  • ANY DISTURBANCE OF EQUILIBRIUM CAN LEAD TO GAS
holmes and rahe
HOLMES AND RAHE
  • MILITARY PSYCHIATRISTS
  • TRANSLATE STRESS THEORY AND WWII TO CIVILIANS
  • STARTED WITH SAILORS
  • MANY OTHER GROUPS
  • SRRS IN 1968
holmes and rahe srrs
HOLMES AND RAHE SRRS
  • STANDARDIZED SCORE
  • NEGATIVE - DEATH, DIVORCE, JAIL
  • AND POSITIVE - MARRIAGE, HAVE CHILD, XMAS
  • BOTH CAN DISTURB EQUILIBRIUM
  • FOCUS ON CHANGES
  • SUM NUMBER AND GET SCORE
h r life events
H+R LIFE EVENTS
  • RELATED TO BOTH MENTAL AND PHYSICAL HEALTH (NON-SPECIFIC)
  • LESS THAN 150 - FEW HEALTH PROBLEMS
  • OVER 300 - 80% HAVE PROBLEMS
  • OVERALL MODERATE CORRELATION WITH HEALTH PROBLEMS
criticisms of srrs
CRITICISMS OF SRRS
  • IGNORES CONTEXT AND MEANING
  • ONLY NEGATIVE ARE STRESSFUL
  • WHAT IS CAUSE AND EFFECT?
  • NOT UPDATED
  • IGNORES DIVERSITY OF RESPONSES
grade distribution
GRADE DISTRIBUTION
  • 90 – 100 A N = 45
  • 88 B+ N = 15
  • 80 - 86 B N = 69
  • 76 - 78 C+ N = 36
  • 60 - 74 C N = 65
  • 50 - 58 D N = 20
  • 32 - 48 F N = 11