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Phytoremediation of Pesticide Contaminated Soil in Kazakhstan. A. Nurzhanova, P. Kulakow, K. Zhambakin, I. Rakhimbayev, A. Sedlovskiy, S. Kalugin, E. Rubin, L. Niketevich, L. Kalmukov. Institute of Plant Physiology, Genetics and Bioengineering Kansas State University

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phytoremediation of pesticide contaminated soil in kazakhstan
Phytoremediation of Pesticide Contaminated Soil in Kazakhstan

A. Nurzhanova, P. Kulakow, K. Zhambakin,

I. Rakhimbayev, A. Sedlovskiy, S. Kalugin,

E. Rubin, L. Niketevich, L. Kalmukov

Institute of Plant Physiology, Genetics and Bioengineering

Kansas State University

Technology Innovation Office, USEPA

Biomonitoring Laboratory, Biomedpreparat

kazakhstan study sites near astana and almaty
KAZAKHSTAN Study sites near Astana and Almaty
  • 14 oblasts
  • The capital - Astana
  • 2.7 million square kilometers
  • 223 million hectares cultivated land or pasture
purpose of istc grant k 750
Purpose of ISTC Grant K-750
  • To identify pesticide tolerant plants that accumulate and/or degrade pesticides and pesticide residues.

Initial Tasks:

  • Estimate pesticide concentrations in soil at field sites.
  • Identify tolerant plants at selected sites.
  • Quantitative and qualitative analysis of residual pesticides in soil and plant tissue.
mutations caused by ddt and hch
Mutations caused by DDT and HCH
  • Studied the effect of DDT and HCH on chromosome structural mutations in barley.
  • Treated barley plants with range of concentrations observed in the field.
  • Compared to control of water and hexane.
structural mutations of barley chromosomes
Structural mutations of barley chromosomes

Translocation

Deletion

Normal Caryotype

Ring

obsolete pesticide problem
OBSOLETE PESTICIDE PROBLEM
  • “Hot spots ” exceeded the Maximum Acceptable Concentrations of DDT metabolites and HCH isomers by the Standards of Kazakhstan.
  • Observed levels of DDT metabolites and HCH isomers caused chromosomal mutations.
  • Solution of this problem is necessary.
plant community structure phytocenosis
Plant Community Structure (Phytocenosis)
  • We surveyed vegetation growing at each Hot Point.
  • Plants that colonize pesticide contaminated sites may have phytoremediation ability.
slide14

Plant community structure changes with site layout and distance from center of contamination

100 species from 19 families observed from three sites

Former Pesticide Storage Site 1Kazakhstan

Road

Center of Contamination

Source: Nurzhanova et al. 2003

slide15

Center of Contamination

Former Pesticide Storage Site 2Kazakhstan

Center of

Contamination

Botanical surveys and ecosystem assessments provide sources for pesticide tolerant species and candidates for phytotechnology applications

Source: Nurzhanova et al. 2003

questions regarding pesticide tolerant plants
QUESTIONS Regarding Pesticide Tolerant Plants
  • Do pesticide tolerant plant species growing at hot point show phytoremediation potential by accumulating organochlorine pesticides in plant tissue?
  • Where is pesticide located within plant tissues?
residual pesticide in plant tissue point 2
Residual Pesticide in Plant Tissue - Point 2

1- Artemisia annua

2 - Erigeron сanadensis

3 - Xanthium strumarium

4 - Kochia scoparia

hystology of xanthium strumarium l root
Hystology of Xanthium strumarium L.root
  • 1-epidermis, 2-primary cortex, 3-phloem, 4-medullary parenchyma, 5-xylem, 6-sclerenсhyma strands
hystology of xanthium strumarium l leaf
Hystology of Xanthium strumarium L. leaf
  • 1-upper epidermis, 2-lower epidermis, 3-palisade mesophyll, 4-spongy mesophyll, 5-conducting bundle,

6-trichome

conclusions
Conclusions
  • 17 of 123 pesticide tolerant plant species.

Predominant species were wild and weedy annuals and biannuals.

  • Some of these tolerant species have the ability to accumulate organochlorine pesticides.
  • Pesticide concentrations observed at field sites cause chromosome structure mutations in barley.
  • Pesticides are located in particular plant tissues.
contact information
Contact Information

Dr. Peter A. Kulakow

Department of Agronomy

Kansas State University

2004 Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center

Manhattan, KS 66506-5501

USA

Phone: 001.785.532.7239

Fax: 001.785.532.6094

Email: kulakow@ksu.edu