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Phillis II of Macedonia

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  1. Olympias Phillis II of Macedonia

  2. Alexander the Great’s Army

  3. The Battle of Granicus River (334 B.C.)

  4. Battle of Issus (333 B.C.)

  5. Albrecht Altdorfer: The Battle of Alexander at Issus (1526).

  6. Siwa

  7. Persepolis, the dynastic capital built by Darius I

  8. Persepolis

  9. The world according to Hecataeus Early Greek Visions of the World

  10. World map according to Posidonius 150-130 BC.

  11. World map according to Eratosthenes (194 B.C.)

  12. Ptolemy’s Map of the World.

  13. World map, 1482

  14. Alexander slays Cleitus, Autumn of 328

  15. Callisthenes was executed for criticizing Alexander’s adoption of proskynesis. Alexander assuming Persian manners Proskynesis: Greek name of the ritual greeting at the eastern courts.

  16. Roxane, the daughter of a Sogdian/Bactrian nobleman, married Alexander the Great in 327 B.C. She was only 16 years old. The Sogdians were an ancient Iranian people whose homeland was in the area around Samarkand and who had established settlements throughout Chinese Turkistan before the advent of Islam.

  17. Alexander takes the Aornus rock, 326 B.C.

  18. Battle of Hydaspes (326 B.C.)

  19. Retreat through the Gedrosian Desert (327-326 B.C.)

  20. Alexander had established a number of cities and military colonies named Alexander to guard strategic points and supervised wide areas. Most of the settlers were Greek mercenaries. It has been estimated that, in the course of his campaign, Alexander summoned some 60,000 to 65,000 additional mercenaries from Greece, at least 36,000 of whom took up residence in the garrisons and new cities.

  21. Eudoxus demonstrated that the planets obeyed regular laws and moved in circular fashion within a number of spheres. Eudoxus See Nagle, p. 227.

  22. Heracleides Noted that Venus is never more than 47° from the Sun, and Mercury is never more than 28° from the Sun. He “speculated that the earth, a sphere, revolved on its own axis daily and that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun (also a planet), although all three, along with the remaining planets, revolved around the earth.” See p. 227

  23. Astrology: the belief that the movement of the heavenly bodies influence human lives. See p. 227

  24. Diogenes of Sinope (ca. 400-325 B.C.), the founder of Cynicism.

  25. Epicurus of Samos (370-340 B.C.) “There is nothing to fear in God nor anything to feel in death. Evil can be endured, good achieved.” Nagle, p. 229. “Thank blessed nature that she had made essential things easy to to come by and things attained with difficulty unnecessary.” (p. 230) “If you wish to make [a man] rich do not add to his money but subtract from his desires.” (p. 230)

  26. Zeno of Cittium (366-280 B.C.) The founder of Stoicism

  27. The remains of some baths and the gymnasium at Pergamum .