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Lamoid Restraint and Physical Exam. Kevin Kristick Pierrette Danieu. Introduction. Classification Domestication Distribution Basic Description Physiology Uses Vaccination Schedule Proper handling Restraint Techniques Physical examination. Classification of Lamoids. Class: Mammalia

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lamoid restraint and physical exam

Lamoid Restraint and Physical Exam

Kevin Kristick

Pierrette Danieu

introduction
Introduction
  • Classification
  • Domestication
  • Distribution
  • Basic Description
  • Physiology
  • Uses
  • Vaccination Schedule
  • Proper handling
  • Restraint Techniques
  • Physical examination
classification of lamoids
Classification of Lamoids
  • Class: Mammalia
    • Order: Artiodactyla
      • Suborder: Tylopoda- camelids
        • Old World Genera and species:
          • Camelus dromedarius
          • Camelus bactrianus
        • New World Genera and species: (Lamoid)
          • Lama glama-Llama
          • Lama pacos- Alpaca
          • Lama guanicoe- Guanaco
          • Vicugna vicugna- Vicuna
      • Sub order: Ruminantia- cattle, sheep, goats, giraffe, etc.
evolution and domestication
Evolution and Domestication
  • First migrated to South America ~3 million years ago
  • Llamas and alpacas have been domesticated for 7,000 years; no wild incidence
  • Guanacos and Vicunas are wild
physical description
Physical Description
  • Life span: 15-25 years
  • Weight:
    • Alpaca: 121-200lbs
    • Llama: 250-550 lbs
  • Height at withers:
    • Alpaca: 30-38 in
    • Llama: 40-47 in
  • Gestation period: 341 days
  • Birth: a single offspring called a cria
physiology
Physiology
  • Foregut fermenters
    • Regurgitation
    • Re-chewing
    • Re-swallowing
  • Stomach has three compartments = resistant to bloat
  • Efficient in extracting protein and energy from poor quality forages
vicuna
Vicuna
  • Wild
  • Subspecies:
    • Peruvian
    • Argentine
  • Smallest Lamoid-weighs under 90 lbs and stands under 3 ft at the shoulder
  • Finest fiber quality of all lamoids
  • Uses a broad range of habitat for grazing and browsing
guanaco
Guanaco
  • Wild
  • Many subspecies
  • High quality inner coat
  • Juvenile pelts are used for garments
  • Uses a broad range of habitat for grazing and browsing
alpaca
Alpaca
  • Exists only as domesticated species
  • Breeds:
    • Huacaya
    • Suri
  • Excellent fiber quality
  • Prefers to graze succulent forage in marshes and moist places
llama
Llama
  • Exists only as domesticated species
  • South American breeds:
    • Heavy neck fiber:
      • Chaku
      • Lanuda
      • Tapada
    • Short neck fiber:
      • Ccara
      • Pelada
  • Inner coat makes excellent garments
  • Grazes dry, harsh grass species
uses alpacas
Uses: Alpacas
  • Premier fiber producing animal
  • Harvested for meat
  • Leather used to make ropes
  • Pelts of crias make fine rugs
  • North American Alpacas serve as show and companion animals
uses llamas
Uses: Llamas
  • Long history of supplying Andean people with meat, leather and fiber
  • Serve as sacrificial animals
  • North American Llamas fill numerous niches:
    • Breeding/showing
    • Companion animals
    • Packing
    • Guard Llamas
    • Golf caddy
lamoid vaccination schedule
Lamoid Vaccination Schedule
  • Crias:
    • 3 mo- CD&T, ± Rabies
    • 4 mo- ± Rabies
  • Annual Herd:
    • CD & T
    • 2 mo- Clostridium perfringens type C, D and tetanus (CD&T)
    • ± Rabies
    • ± Lepto. Repeat q 6 mo.
  • New Animals:
    • Initial series: CD&T, Lepto, Rabies
    • Booster all in one month
  • Prebirthing Boosters:
    • CD&T
    • 4-6 weeks prior to anticipated birth
handling
Handling
  • Avoid Eye Contact
  • Place a Halter and Lead Rope
  • Use Your Surroundings
  • Less is Best!
handling16
Handling
  • Monitor Body Posture
    • Ear Position
    • Tail Position
handling17
Handling
  • Stand Near the Shoulder to Avoid Kicking
  • Do Not Work Alone
  • Avoid Spitting
    • Ears Laid Back
    • Gulping/Gurgling Sound
restraint
Restraint
  • Neck and Tail Hold
    • Similar to sheep
    • Approach slowly
    • Place one arm around base of neck
    • Firmly grasp tail with other hand
    • Difficult in larger animals
restraint19
Restraint
  • “Earing”
    • Similar to “earing” a horse
    • Gain owner approval
    • Squeeze firmly
    • Caution: Natural instinctive movement is away from the grasping
restraint20
Restraint
  • “Chukkering”
    • Places animal in recumbency by restricting the hind legs
restraint21
Restraint
  • Chutes or Stocks
    • Commercially available
    • Easy to construct
    • “Fowler” chute
restraint22
Restraint
  • Neonates
    • Neck and Tail Hold
    • Proper Lifting
    • Lateral Recumbency
    • Sternal Recumbency (kush position)
physical exam
Physical Exam
  • Normals:
    • Temp: 99.5-102 F
    • Pulse: 60-90
    • Resp: 10-30
    • Gastric Motility: 3-5 contractions/min
physical exam24
Physical Exam
  • Heart and Lung Auscultation
    • Reach through fleece
    • At the elbow
    • Caudal to triceps
physical exam25
Physical Exam
  • Assessing Body Condition
    • Dorsal spinal muscles at T8 to L2
    • Triangular = Thin
    • Round = Healthy
    • Flat = Overweight
physical exam26
Physical Exam
  • Assessing the Eye

A: Eyelid Margins

B: Third Eyelid

C: Bulbar Conjunctiva

D: Iris

E: Pronounced Dark Pupillary Margins (corpora nigrum)

F: Ocular Fundus

physical exam27
Physical Exam
  • Assessing the Ears
    • Difficult to assess
    • Facial paralysis seen with infections (Listeria monocytogenes)
physical exam28
Physical Exam
  • Assessing the Mouth
    • Inability to open wide prevents good exam
    • Check incisor teeth for under or over bite
    • Modified canine teeth present, called Fighting teeth (up to 3 pair)
physical exam29
Physical Exam
  • Blood Collection
    • Difficult due to protective barriers
    • Jugular venipuncture is best
    • Blind stick, can not feel or see jugular groove in most animals
references
References
  • Fowler, Murray E. DVM, Medicine and Surgery of South American Camelids 2nd ed., Iowa Sate University Press, 1998
  • www.purdyvet.com
  • A special thanks to Dr. Pam Walker
  • Another thanks to Dr. Stephen Purdy
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