Webmaster 3224 Unit One Introduction
Topics • 1.1 What is the Internet? • 1.2 A Brief History of the Internet • 1.3 Using Internet Technologies • 1.4 You and the Internet • 1.5 What is the WWW? • 1.6 Finding Information on the WWW • 1.7 What Next? • 1.8 An Introduction to HTML • 1.9 WYSIWYG Editors
1.1 Introduction to the Internet
What is the internet • The Internet by definition is a collection of thousands of individual networks and organizations, each of which is run and paid for on its own. • Each network cooperates with other networks to direct Internet traffic, so that information can pass along them.
What is the Internet? ...cont.... • Together, all these networks and organizations make up the wired world of the Internet. • In order for networks and computers to cooperate in this way, though, there needs to be general agreement about the way things such as Internet procedures and standards for protocols.
One of the most frequently asked questions about the Internet is who runs it? • The answer is that no one group runs or owns the Internet. • There is no centralized management for the Internet. • However there are a variety of groups guide the growth of the Internet.
These Groups such Include: • The Internet Society – • The Internet Registry – • Internet Activities Board (IAB) - • World Wide Web Consortium (W3 Consortium) -
The Internet Society • Non-profit organization that that makes technological and architectural recommendations that pertain to the Internet. Example How TCP/IP and other Internet protocols work.
The Internet Registry • Records the addresses and tracks the connections between addresses and domain names. • Domain names are names given to networks connected to the Internet such as [kkjg.ca].
Internet Activities Board (IAB) Handles the Internet's behind-the-scenes and architectural issues such as Network Technology.
World Wide Web Consortium (W3 Consortium) • Develops standards for the WWW.
1.2 A Brief History of the Internet
1.2 Tracing the Historical Development of the Internet [3.401] • The Internet was originally a military project used for defense purposes. • In the late 1960s, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) launched the first parts of what would become the Internet, the ARPAnet. • The ARPAnet was expanded in the 1970s, when universities and companies were allowed to use it
• Other unaffiliated networks popped up, such as BITNET (1981) and Usenet (1984). Commercial networks like CompuServe and America Online also began drawing customers. • • A major movement related to the Internet was toward open commercial use. Business was a significant driving force behind research and innovation. • • In 1993, a group of students created Mosaic, a software tool for browsing the Internet. Once Mosaic was released, the Internet became accessible to anyone with a personal computer.
Internet Past and Present • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nVTUi6wWN3M
The Internet has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before. • The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capabilities. • The Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information dissemination, and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard for geographic location.
The Internet represents one of the most successful examples of the benefits of sustained investment and commitment to research and development of information infrastructure. • Beginning with the early research in packet switching, the government, industry and academia have been partners in evolving and deploying this exciting new technology. • Today, terms like "email@example.com" and "http://www.acm.org" trip lightly off the tongue of the random person on the street.
1.3 Using Internet Technologies
Using Internet Technologies • Made up of homepages, graphics, animations and sound. • Must use a browser such as Explorer Internet, FireFox, Google or Netscape or to view sites. • Search engines can be used to locate the subject and topic you are interested in.
It is believed by a large number of individuals or government organizations that the WWW to be the largest store of information in the World. • Positive: It contains a large selection of educational sites. • Negative: The WWW has what is believed too many advertisements witch is trying to lure the user into purchasing items over the Internet. • It is both positive and negative and should be used wisely.
Email • Email enables you to send messages and attachments to anyone with an email address worldwide. • Email addresses take the form NAME@somewhere.ca. • Email uses ASCII text [plain text] but it now also supports HTML5 graphics and formatting. • Some popular email programs are the Outlook, Hotmail, Live, Yahoo, google, etc...
Newsgroups • There are thousands of newsgroups available for Internet subscribers. People write email-like messages offline then post them to a bulletin board system where other users can read them. • Examples of newsgroups are rec.sports.nhl or stranger ones such as alt.alien.visitors. • Some newsgroups are moderated while others are not. May contain offensive, disturbing or abusive language. • Blog, Twitts etc...
Telnet • This is a program that is used to connect to remote computers on the Internet. • If you have an account on a system you can use Telnet to login and connect. • Some popular Telnet programs are Ewan, and the Windows Telnet program. • Can have security problems as it enables people to hack.
FTP • Stands for File Transfer Protocol. • This is a method of transferring files and programs over the Internet. • Can be used for uploading and downloading programs and documents on the Internet. • Most commonly used to uploading web pages to an Internet server for display on the WWW.
Real Time Chat • Examples are Facetime, Facebook, MSN Messenger, LiveChat, Java chat, chat rooms etc. • Can be one-on-one or users can enter a room with many other different people. • Many business use real time chat with clients rather then discuss problems over the telephone systems.
Videoconferencing • Includes Audio, video, and chat like typing. • Has many applications including teleconferencing for governments and businesses and even telemedicine. • Some popular examples are MS Netmeeting, CUSeeMe or SKYPE.
The Internet • The Internet in reality is like a large city. • It is made up of different types of people. • Some people are professionals, nurses, doctors, professors, engineers, business people, teachers, journalists etc. • Some people are students, some are employed some are unemployed. You will meet people of different cultures, nationalities, races, and backgrounds. A lot of these meetings are educational. There is a lot to learn and there is no better place than the Internet. • When you go on the Internet you are going out into the world
Assignment 1.2 • Find ** What is the difference between "the Internet" and the "World Wide Web"? • Write your definitions in NotePad and save the file as [Your First and Last Name 1_2_definitions.htm] • in your Webmaster folder. • IE: JohnSmith1_1definitions.htm
1.4 You and the Internet • Unit 1 - Introduction to the InternetNOTES - You and the InternetAs students in a high school technology course, the Internet is a very valuable tool to accompany your studies. • The following article from http://www.4teachers.org/kidspeak/thelan/index.shtml show just what the Internet means to Teens. The importance of the Internet for teens • By David Thelen
Assignment 1.4 • Answer the following: • What importance is the internet for you as a student and you personally? • What do you think the importance of the internet is for school; for example teachers, classes, or administration.? • Write your answers in NotePad and save the file as • [Your First and Last Name 1_4_questions.htm] • in your Webmaster folder. • IE: JohnSmith1_4questions.htm
1.5 What is the WWW? • A technical definition of the World Wide Web is: all the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). • A broader definition comes from the organization that Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee helped found, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): • "The World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible information, an embodiment of human knowledge."
For a long time, people dreamt of the concept of a universal information database - data that would not only be accessible to people around the world, but information that would be easy to link. • This would make it easy for users to find relevant information on the fly. • In the1960's this idea was explored further, giving rise to hope for the research community particularly. • Technology is now available that makes this possible.
The WorldWide Web is described as a "wide-area hypermedia information retrieval initiative aiming to give universal access to a large universe of documents". • What the WorldWide Web (WWW, W3) project has done is provide users on computer networks with a consistent means to access a variety of media in a simplified fashion. Using a popular software interface to the Web called Mosaic, the Web project has changed the way people view and create information. The web has led to the first truly global hypermedia network.
What is hypertext and hypermedia? • The operation of the Web relies on hypertext as its means of interacting with users. Hypertext is basically the same as regular text in that it can be stored, read, searched, or edited. • Hypertext contains connections within the text to other documents.
Hypertext allows you access to a wide variety of related documents by way of links. • These links, called hyperlinks, connect you to other nested documents either on the local drive or on a machine on a totally different network.
Hypermedia is hypertext with a one big difference, hypermedia documents contain links not only to other pieces of text, but also to other forms of media. • That is; sound files, image files, and movies. Images themselves can be selected to link to sounds or documents.
Here are some simple examples of hypermedia: • You are reading a text on the French language. You select a phrase, then hear the phrase as spoken in the native tongue. • Looking at a company's floorplan, you are able to select an office by touching a room. The employee's name and picture appears with a list of their current projects. • The Web allows many of these examples ,and more, to work in real life. It facilitates the easy exchange of hypermedia through networked environments from anything as small as two Macintoshes connected together to something as large as the global Internet.
How does the WWW work? • Web information is stored in documents called Web pages. • Web pages are files stored on computers called Web servers. • Computers reading the Web pages are called Web clients. • Web clients view the pages with a program called a Web browser. • Popular browsers are Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.
1.6 Finding Information on the WWW • Finding information on the WWW can be a daunting task at times. • Thankfully search engines like Yahoo! and Google have made it easier for us to search for the information we need. It just takes a little work on our part to make this happen. • The links below take you to the areas of Yahoo! and Google that will explain how to best search for your information! • Yahoo! Search Tips • Google Advanced Search Tips
1.7 What Next? • What do you think that the internet would be like in the future? • Internet Telephones (now) • Internet Smells!?!? • Internet Medicine
1.8 An Introduction to HTML What is an HTML File? • HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language • An HTML file is a text file containing small markup tags • The markup tags tell the Web browser how to display the page • An HTML file must have an htm or html file extension • An HTML file can be created using a simple text editor
Basic Coding • Your First Web Page • <html> • <head> • <title>First Sample of HTML5 Coding</title> • </head> • <body> • <p>This is Webmaster 3224 2014-15 homepage.</p> • </body> • </html>
1.8 Assignment HTML5 Coding • Open NotePad and type up the basic code from slide 43. Change the information to be displayed on the webpage by using your name along with the course number. • Save the file as • [Your First and Last Name 1_8_firstcode.htm] • in your Webmaster folder. • IE: JohnSmith1_8firstcode.htm
Example Explained • The first tag in your HTML document is <html>. This tag tells your browser that this is the start of an HTML document. The last tag in your document is </html>. This tag tells your browser that this is the end of the HTML document.
The text between the <head> tag and the </html> tag is header information. Header information is not displayed in the browser window. • The text between the <title> tags is the title of your document. The title is displayed in your browser's caption. • The text between the <body> tags is the text that will be displayed in your browser.
1.9 WYSIWYG Editors A WYSIWYG (pronounced "wiz-ee-wig") editor or program is one that allows a developer to see what the end result will look like while the interface or document is being created. WYSIWYG is an acronym for "what you see is what you get". A WYSIWYG editor can be contrasted with more traditional editors that require the developer to enter descriptive codes (or markup) and do not permit an immediate way to see the results of the markup.
The first true WYSIWYG editor was a word processing program called Bravo. • Invented by Charles Simonyi at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in the 1970s, it became the basis for Simonyi's work at Microsoft and evolved into two other WYSIWYG applications called Word and Excel.
An HTML WYSIWYG editor, such as Microsoft's FrontPage or Adobe's PageMill conceals the markup and allows the Web page developer to think entirely in terms of how the content should appear. • One of the trade-offs, however, is that an HTML WYSIWYG editor sometimes inserts the markup code it thinks is needed all on its own. Then, the developer has to know enough about the markup language to go back into the source code and clean it up.