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Artificial Intelligence By: Ian, Chelsea, Doug, & Grace Artificial intelligence (AI) - is a branch of computer science and engineering that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines History Of Artificial Intelligence 1950s

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slide1

Artificial Intelligence

By: Ian, Chelsea, Doug, & Grace

slide2

Artificial intelligence (AI) - is a branch of computer science and engineering that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines

1950s
1950s
  • The 1950s were a period of active efforts in AI
  • Alan Turing introduced the "Turing test”
  • The first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark I
1960s 1970s
1960s-1970s
  • Joel Moses demonstrated the power of symbolic reasoning for integration problems
  • Leonard Uhr and Charles Vossler published "A Pattern Recognition Program That Generates, Evaluates, and Adjusts Its Own Operators" in 1963
1980s
1980s
  • Neutral networks became widely used due to the backpropagation algorithm
  • The team of Ernst Dickmanns built the first robot cars, driving up to 55 mph on empty streets
  • Marked major achievements in many areas of AI and demonstrations of various applications
1990s turn of the century
1990s & Turn of the Century
  • During the 1990s and 2000s AI has become very influenced by probability theory and statistics
  • After the September 11, 2001 attacks there has been much renewed interest and funding for threat-detection AI systems, including machine vision research and data-mining
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DARPA Grand Challenge

  • DARPA is a challenge for driverless cars
  • The cars have no communication with humans
  • In 2005 the winning vehicles completed all 132 miles of the course in just under 7 hours
a few basic rules
A Few Basic Rules
  • Must follow California driving laws
  • Vehicles must follow a specific rout following specific check points
  • Vehicles must drive though fog and rain even if GPS is blocked
schools of thought
Schools Of Thought

1. Conventional A.I.

2. Computational Intelligence

conventional a i a k a symbolic a i logical a i neat a i and good old fashioned a i gofai
Conventional A.I. - a.k.a. symbolic A.I., logical A.I., neat A.I., and Good Old Fashioned A.I.(GOFAI)
machine learning methods
Machine Learning Methods

Expert systems

  • a computer program that contains some subject-specific knowledge of one or more human experts.
  • helps users solve problems and draw conclusions reasonably.
machine learning methods13
Machine learning methods

Nuetral Networks

  • systems with very strong pattern recognition capabilities
  • a.k.a. ANN (artificial neural network)
  • an adaptive system that changes its structure based on external or internal info that flows through the network.
fuzzy control system
Fuzzy Control System
  • based on fuzzy logic (concepts that cannot be expressed as true or false but as partially true
a i in fiction
A.I. In Fiction
  • Strong A.I. is used most often for entertainment purposes
  • Usually portrayed as an upcoming power trying to overthrow human authority
  • Trying to cause abrupt and dramatic changes
  • A few A.I. writers are: Vernor Vinge, Ray Kurzweil, and Frank Herbert
  • Author Vernor Vinge states, “…technology will reach a point beyond which we cannot even speculate about the consequences.”
case based reasoning
Case-based Reasoning
  • the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems
bayesian network
Bayesian Network
  • a.k.a. Bayesian belief network or belief network
behavior based a i
Behavior Based A.I.
  • Made famous by Rodney Brooks
  • A procedure for developing A.I. off of another module of intelligence
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Computational Intelligence - repetitive development/learning that relays on evidence /consequences observable by the senses
schools of thought20
Schools of Thought
  • Conventional Artifical Intelligence
    • Machine Learning
        • Formalism
        • Statistical Analysis
      • Expert Systems
      • Case Based Reasoning
      • Bayesian Networks
      • Behavior
schools of thought cont
Schools of Thought cont.
  • Computational Intelligence
    • Neural Networkes
    • Fuzzy Systems
    • Evolutionary Computation
artifical intelligence in fiction
Artifical Intelligence In Fiction
  • Books
    • A Space Odyssey
    • The Moon is a Harsh Mistress
  • Movies
    • The Matrix
    • Bicentennial Man
    • I, Robot
  • Video Games
    • Halo