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  1. Artificial Intelligence By: Ian, Chelsea, Doug, & Grace

  2. Artificial intelligence (AI) - is a branch of computer science and engineering that deals with intelligent behavior, learning, and adaptation in machines

  3. History Of Artificial Intelligence

  4. 1950s • The 1950s were a period of active efforts in AI • Alan Turing introduced the "Turing test” • The first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark I

  5. 1960s-1970s • Joel Moses demonstrated the power of symbolic reasoning for integration problems • Leonard Uhr and Charles Vossler published "A Pattern Recognition Program That Generates, Evaluates, and Adjusts Its Own Operators" in 1963

  6. 1980s • Neutral networks became widely used due to the backpropagation algorithm • The team of Ernst Dickmanns built the first robot cars, driving up to 55 mph on empty streets • Marked major achievements in many areas of AI and demonstrations of various applications

  7. 1990s & Turn of the Century • During the 1990s and 2000s AI has become very influenced by probability theory and statistics • After the September 11, 2001 attacks there has been much renewed interest and funding for threat-detection AI systems, including machine vision research and data-mining

  8. DARPA Grand Challenge • DARPA is a challenge for driverless cars • The cars have no communication with humans • In 2005 the winning vehicles completed all 132 miles of the course in just under 7 hours

  9. A Few Basic Rules • Must follow California driving laws • Vehicles must follow a specific rout following specific check points • Vehicles must drive though fog and rain even if GPS is blocked

  10. Schools Of Thought 1. Conventional A.I. 2. Computational Intelligence

  11. Conventional A.I. - a.k.a. symbolic A.I., logical A.I., neat A.I., and Good Old Fashioned A.I.(GOFAI)

  12. Machine Learning Methods Expert systems • a computer program that contains some subject-specific knowledge of one or more human experts. • helps users solve problems and draw conclusions reasonably.

  13. Machine learning methods Nuetral Networks • systems with very strong pattern recognition capabilities • a.k.a. ANN (artificial neural network) • an adaptive system that changes its structure based on external or internal info that flows through the network.

  14. Fuzzy Control System • based on fuzzy logic (concepts that cannot be expressed as true or false but as partially true

  15. A.I. In Fiction • Strong A.I. is used most often for entertainment purposes • Usually portrayed as an upcoming power trying to overthrow human authority • Trying to cause abrupt and dramatic changes • A few A.I. writers are: Vernor Vinge, Ray Kurzweil, and Frank Herbert • Author Vernor Vinge states, “…technology will reach a point beyond which we cannot even speculate about the consequences.”

  16. Case-based Reasoning • the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems

  17. Bayesian Network • a.k.a. Bayesian belief network or belief network

  18. Behavior Based A.I. • Made famous by Rodney Brooks • A procedure for developing A.I. off of another module of intelligence

  19. Computational Intelligence - repetitive development/learning that relays on evidence /consequences observable by the senses

  20. Schools of Thought • Conventional Artifical Intelligence • Machine Learning • Formalism • Statistical Analysis • Expert Systems • Case Based Reasoning • Bayesian Networks • Behavior

  21. Schools of Thought cont. • Computational Intelligence • Neural Networkes • Fuzzy Systems • Evolutionary Computation

  22. Artifical Intelligence In Fiction • Books • A Space Odyssey • The Moon is a Harsh Mistress • Movies • The Matrix • Bicentennial Man • I, Robot • Video Games • Halo