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FAA New Technologies Workshop III 9 January 2007 “Making Ground Based Landing Systems a Reality” Keith McPherson Mana PowerPoint Presentation
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FAA New Technologies Workshop III 9 January 2007 “Making Ground Based Landing Systems a Reality” Keith McPherson Manager GNSS. What are we trying to do?.

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slide1

FAA New Technologies Workshop III

9 January 2007

“Making Ground Based Landing Systems

a Reality”

Keith McPherson

Manager GNSS

slide2

What are we trying to do?

Provide harmonious integration of navigation and surveillance systems to provide air space solutions that deliver safe and cost effective seamless gate to gate flight operations to all stakeholders

Reduce controlled flights into terrain

Improve vertical navigation

Why?

controlled flight into terrain accident locations us statistics none available for australia
Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accident Locations(US statistics, none available for Australia)
slide5

Regional Example

On 7 May 2005, a Fairchild Metroliner, with two pilots and 13 passengers, was on a scheduled passenger service from Bamaga to Cairns via Lockhart River, Qld.

Simulation from Flight Data Recorder information

slide6

Aircraft was well established on GPS centreline, but 850 feet below published flight path at impact point.GRAS provides the vertical guidance required, but pilots must trust their instruments

From: INTERIM FACTUAL AVIATION SAFETY INVESTIGATION REPORT 200501977

slide7

Ilyushin IL-76

Baucau, Timor-Leste

31 January, 2003

Runway 14 Baucau

Accident Site

Extended Centre Line

slide8

Mount Gambier, SA

10 December 2001

Extended Centre Line

Mt Gambier Airport

Accident Site

slide9

What have we done?

  • 71% of the world’s airports are Cat-I (IATA)
  • The world has been waiting for 15 years for GBAS Cat-I
  • Industry had LAAS SCAT-I capability in 1992/93
  • But international STANDARDS were missing
  • US (FAA) brought GBAS Cat-I SARPs to ICAO
  • Once approved, there was an expectation the system would become available immediately – didn’t happen due to integrity issues
  • Qantas took delivery of 9 B737-NGs with GBAS Cat-I avionics
  • Drove Airservices to look at investing to make the system happen
slide10

Technology Overview

NPA 400-600ft

GRAS 250ft

GBAS 200ft

GRAS Transmitters

Sydney Airport

Regional Airport

  • Increased safety, accuracy & integrity
  • More efficient approaches
  • Reduced infrastructure & real estate
  • Increased Guided missed approaches
  • Increased Integrity
  • Supports ADS-B - accurate surveillance
  • Assists UPR & UPT
  • Mixed Mode operation with RNP
  • Guided Departures
  • Situational Awareness
  • Accurate departure tracks
  • Environmental saving

GBAS is a precision landing system

GRAS enroute & regional approach system

slide11

GBAS System

Ground

Based

Augmentation

System

GBAS is Airport Based

GRAS Regional System

  • GBAS Features
  • Replaces ILS
  • Covers all runway ends
  • Curved approaches
    • Terrain Issues
    • Environmental
  • Guided missed
  • approaches
  • Guided departures
  • Reduced real estate
  • More stability
  • Less signal Interference
  • Less maintenance

One GBAS supports all runways within 23 nmiles (eg Sydney and Bankstown)

slide12

Terrain Restrictions

Guided Departures

GNSS Operational Benefits

Angled Approach

Community Noise Concerns

Straight Approach

Runways

Parallel Approach

Sectored Approach

GRAS and GBAS provide

Vertical Guidance and

Flexible approaches

Curved Approach

slide14

GPS Reference Receiver Antennas

VHF Data Link Antenna

The “Hook” at Sydney airport extending into Botany Bay

GLS Facility Shelter

slide15

QANTAS:

First B737-NGs with operational GBAS Cat-I

First full fleet fitment of GLS

Lead customer for GLS on A-380s

slide16

Beta GBAS Cat-I in Australia

28 Aug 05: Decision to go ahead

29 Oct 05: First test flight by Qantas (Intermittent trials for 12 mths)

31 Oct 06: CASA approved Qantas to fly the GBAS Cat-1

(CASA Instrument 399/06)

Must use Honeywell Beta+ GBAS facility

Only usable by Qantas pilots in accordance with Qantas trial

May fly below RTCC lowest altitude if:

Ceiling is at least 3000 feet above terrain

Flight crew has runway threshold in sight

03 Nov 06: CASA approved Airservices to commence transmissions

23 Nov 06: Go live date

Other airlines with suitably equipped and approved GBASavionics may apply for approval to use the approaches

slide17

ICAO Compliant GBAS Cat-I in Australia

  • Airservices Australia contracted Honeywell International to bring an ICAO compliant GBAS Cat-I to completion – signed 10 Apr 06
  • Approximately 22 months to complete RTCA DO-178B/278 compliant software – approximately 6 months of certification
  • Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority involved from Day 1
  • Aim is to have CASA approve Part 171 change to allow operation of completed system by mid 2008
  • Technical Cooperation Agreement signed with the FAA (Feb 06) to share information, staff and procedures
slide18

ICAO Compliant GBAS Cat-I in Australia

  • Building and certifying to FAA Doc 2937A – some areas will be non compliant due to Australian laws eg. fire and intruder alarms must not be part of system but completely separate
  • System will enable elliptical or horizontal polarised broadcasts
  • FAA plans to issue System Design Approval for the ground station only as a “Non-Fed” system using Memphis
  • Once SDA achieved, system migrates to Australia for the full Part 171 operational approval program
  • Operational Approval involves ground station, site surveys, maintenance plans, logistics plans, flight inspection plans, pilot training, pilot licensing, ATC training
slide19

QANTAS Aircraft - GBAS Fitment

Qantas has 9 x B737-800s with GBAS avionics

Approval gained 22 Dec 06 to retrofit other 24 x B737s

Qantas 20 x A380s will come fitted with GBAS avionics

All new Boeing aircraft will be fitted with GBAS avionics

(including B787s (2007), B747-8s (2009)

B777-200/300 Block 2 avionics or above are candidates for retrofitting – growing demand from airlines for B777 retrofit

Airbus aircraft has GBAS avionics as an option on future buys

slide20

Availability

  • Red label GBAS Cat-1 available 1st Quarter 2008 (12 months from now)
  • Hardware and software as presented for certification but awaiting certification
  • Red Labels into Memphis, Sydney, Bremen, Malaga late 2007
  • Red Label will be upgraded to black label if no changes during certification
  • Black Label GBAS Cat-I available 1st quarter 2009
slide21

Unexpected Outcomes

  • Aircraft manufacturers and airlines driving the way forward instead of waiting to be told what they should use
  • The synergy between Performance Based Navigation (RNP) and GBAS
  • Challenge of designing approaches to transition between an RNP approach and a Precision Approach or Approach with Vertical Guidance
  • Renewed interest in GBAS Cat-I
  • International Requests For Proposals and Requests for Expressions of Interest already issued for GBAS Cat-I systems
  • Outstanding relationship developed between FAA and Airservices Australia GBAS staff and senior management for certification and operational approval of GBAS
slide22

SBAS Geo Satellite Ranging Only

Galileo Satellite

GRAS – Generic Architecture

GPS

GLONASS Satellite

Satellite

SBAS Geo

(

Ranging Signal Only)

VDB

VDB

GRAS Master

Reference

Station

Stations

VDB

VDB

VDB

Terrestrial

Communication Links

Similar to SBAS and GBAS

VDB

slide23

GRAS

  • Phase 1 System Design started 2005
  • Phase 2 - Full development contract signed with Honeywell 10 Apr 06
  • APV-I (0.999 availability) will be achieved in low density areas
  • APV-I (0.9999 availability) will be achieved in high density areas
  • APV-II was assessed and the benefit gained was considered not worth the additional investment
  • ICAO only requires APV-I
  • GRAS SARPs Applicability Date 23 Nov 06
  • Operational Approval December 2008 (planned)
slide24

GRAS Avionics

  • RTCA GRAS MOPS (Avionics) now in penultimate draft
    • To commence Final Review and Comments (FRAC) Jan 07
  • MOPS cater for high end aircraft, regional, charter and general aviation
  • Queensland University of Technology PhD students are building a General Aviation low cost aircraft GRAS receiver
slide25

GBAS/GRAS Synergies

  • One set of ICAO SARPs covers both GBAS and GRAS
  • GBAS and GRAS capability in the one avionics, not separate systems
  • The synergy between GBAS and GRAS avionics is so close that the combination provides a cost effective solution to augmentation
  • Provides vertical guidance for regional, charter and general aviation
  • Airservices Australia and Honeywell are forging ahead with GBAS Cat-1 and GRAS development and certification
summary plan
Summary Plan

CY05

CY06

CY07

CY08

CY09

Sydney Demonstration GBAS

GBAS Software Development

GRAS software Development

Phase 1 – Definition

Phase 2 – Development and Certification

Production

Operational & Deployment

GBAS Aircraft

GRAS Avionics

23/11

27/10

First passenger

flight

SLS-4000 Beta

To Sydney

30/4

14/10

SDA

Certification

PDR

CDR

TRR

Submit

Certification docs

27/1

25/10

Certification

IOC

PDR

HW

PDR

SW

CDR

Prototype

Full Production

Tech Cert

Safety Case

171 Certification

Remote Monitor

Procedure

A380

B737-800

B787

B747-8

A320

A340

Low Cost

Avionics

Standards

Hon MMR