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Chapter 9 Acids and Bases. Strengths of Acids and Bases Making Dilutions. Strengths of Acids and Bases. Strong acids completely ionize (100%) in aqueous solutions HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl - (100 % ions )

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chapter 9 acids and bases
Chapter 9Acids and Bases

Strengths of Acids and Bases

Making Dilutions

LecturePLUS Timberlake

strengths of acids and bases
Strengths of Acids and Bases

Strong acids completely ionize (100%) in aqueous solutions

HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl- (100 % ions)

Strong bases completely (100%) dissociate into ions in aqueous solutions.

NaOH Na+ (aq) + OH-(aq)

(100 % ions)

LecturePLUS Timberlake

nh 3 a bronsted lowry base
NH3, A Bronsted-Lowry Base

When NH3 reacts with water, most of the reactants remain dissolved as molecules, but a few NH3 reacts with water to form NH4+ and hydroxide ion.

NH3 + H2O NH4+(aq) + OH- (aq)

acceptor donor

+ +

LecturePLUS Timberlake

strong and weak acids and bases
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases

Strong acids

HCl, HNO3 ,H2SO4

Most other acids are weak.

Strong bases

NaOH, KOH, and Ca(OH)2

Most other bases are weak.

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check sw1
Learning Check SW1

Identify each of the following as a

1) strong acid or base 2) weak acid

3) weak base

A. ___ HCl (aq)

B. ___ NH3(aq)

C. ___ NaOH (aq)

D. ___ H2CO3 (aq)

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution sw1
Solution SW1

Identify each of the following as a

1) strong acid or base 2) weak acid

3) weak base

A. _1__ HCl (aq)

B. _3__ NH3(aq)

C. _1__ NaOH (aq)

D. _2__ H2CO3 (aq)

LecturePLUS Timberlake

antacids
Antacids
  • Used to neutralize stomach acid (HCl)
  • Many contain one or more weak bases

Alka-Seltzer: NaHCO3, citric acid, and aspirin

Di-gel: CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2

Gelusil: Al(OH)3and Mg(OH)2

Maalox: Al(OH)3and Mg(OH)2

Mylanta: Al(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2

LecturePLUS Timberlake

more antacids
More Antacids

Milk of Magnesia: Mg(OH)2

Rolaids: AlNa(OH)2CO3

aluminum sodium dihydroxy carbonate

Tums: CaCO3

Tempo: CaCO3,Al(OH)3,Mg(OH)2

LecturePLUS Timberlake

dilutions
Dilutions
  • Add water
  • Volume increases.
  • New concentration is less than initial

LecturePLUS Timberlake

concentration of a diluted solution
Concentration of A Diluted Solution

A 25 mL sample of a 6.0 M KOH is diluted by adding 75 mL of water. Calculate the new concentration of the KOH solution.

Moles KOH = 0.025 L x 6.0 moles = 0.15 moles

1 L

New volume = 25 mL + 75 mL = 100. mL = 0.100 L

New molarity = 0.15 moles = 1.5 M

0.100 L

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check sw 2
Learning Check SW 2

A 125 mL sample of a 3.0 M HCl is diluted by adding 250 mL of water. The new concentration of the HCl solution is

1) 8.0 M

2) 1.5 M

3) 1.0 M

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution sw 2
Solution SW 2

3) 1.0 M

moles HCl = 0.250 L x 3.0 moles = 0.75 mole

1 L

new M = 0.75 mole 1.0 M HCl

0.750 L

(new volume)

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check sw 3
Learning Check SW 3

A 50.0 mL sample of 15% sucrose solution is diluted by adding 200. mL of water. The new concentration of the sucrose solution is

1) 3.0 %

2) 7.5 %

3) 10. %

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check sw 314
Learning Check SW 3

A 50.0 mL sample of 15% sucrose solution is diluted by adding 200. mL of water. The new concentration of the sucrose solution is

1) 3.0 %

g sucrose = 50.0 mL x 15 g sucrose = 7.5 g

100 mL

new % = 7.5 g sucrose = 3.0 % sucrose

250 mL

(new volume)

LecturePLUS Timberlake