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Biology. 16-3 The Process of Speciation. 16-3 The Process of Speciation. 16-3 The Process of Speciation. Natural selection and chance events can change the relative frequencies of alleles in a population and lead to speciation. Speciation is the formation of new species.

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biology
Biology

Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

16 3 the process of speciation3
16-3 The Process of Speciation
  • Natural selection and chance events can change the relative frequencies of alleles in a population and lead to speciation.
  • Speciation is the formation of new species.
  • A species is a group of organisms that breed with one another and produce fertile offspring.

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isolating mechanisms
Isolating Mechanisms
  • What factors are involved in the formation of new species?
  • The gene pools of two populations must become separated for them to become new species.

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isolating mechanisms5
Isolating Mechanisms
  • Isolating Mechanisms
    • As new species evolve, populations become reproductively isolated from each other.
    • When the members of two populations cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring, reproductive isolation has occurred.

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isolating mechanisms6
Isolating Mechanisms
  • Reproductive isolation can develop in a variety of ways, including:
      • behavioral isolation
      • geographic isolation
      • temporal isolation

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isolating mechanisms7
Isolating Mechanisms
  • Behavioral Isolation 
    • Behavioral isolation occurs when two populations are capable of interbreeding but have differences in courtship rituals or other reproductive strategies that involve behavior.

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isolating mechanisms8
Isolating Mechanisms
  • Geographic Isolation 
    • Geographic isolation occurs when two populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers or mountains.

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isolating mechanisms9
Isolating Mechanisms
  • Geographic barriers do not guarantee the formation of new species.
  • If two formerly separated populations can still interbreed, they remain a single species.
  • Potential geographic barriers may separate certain types of organisms but not others.

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isolating mechanisms10
Isolating Mechanisms
  • Temporal Isolation  
    • Temporal isolation occurs when two or more species reproduce at different times.

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testing natural selection in nature
Testing Natural Selection in Nature
  • Testing Natural Selection in Nature
      • Studies showing natural selection in action involve descendants of the finches that Darwin observed in the Galápagos Islands.
      • The finches Darwin saw were different, but he hypothesized that they had descended from a common ancestor.

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testing natural selection in nature12
Testing Natural Selection in Nature

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testing natural selection in nature13
Testing Natural Selection in Nature

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testing natural selection in nature14
Testing Natural Selection in Nature
  • Peter and Rosemary Grant tested Darwin’s hypothesis, which relied on two testable assumptions:
      • For beak size and shape to evolve, there must be enough heritable variation in those traits to provide raw material for natural selection.
      • Differences in beak size and shape must produce differences in fitness, causing natural selection to occur.

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testing natural selection in nature15
Testing Natural Selection in Nature
  • The Grants tested these hypotheses on the medium ground finch on Daphne Major, one of the Galápagos Islands.
  • During the rainy season, there is plenty of food.

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testing natural selection in nature16
Testing Natural Selection in Nature
  • During droughts, food becomes scarce.
  • Individual birds with different-sized beaks had different chances of survival during a drought.

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testing natural selection in nature17
Testing Natural Selection in Nature
  • When food was scarce, individuals with large beaks were more likely to survive.

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testing natural selection in nature18
Testing Natural Selection in Nature
  • The Grants provided evidence of the process of evolution.
  • Beak size can be changed by natural selection.

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speciation in darwin s finches
Speciation in Darwin’s Finches
  • Describe the process of speciation in the Galápagos finches.

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speciation in darwin s finches20
Speciation in Darwin's Finches
  • Speciation in Darwin's Finches
    • Speciation in the Galápagos finches occurred by:
      • founding of a new population
      • geographic isolation
      • changes in new population's gene pool
      • reproductive isolation
      • ecological competition

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speciation in darwin s finches21
Speciation in Darwin's Finches
  • Founders Arrive 

A few finches—species A—travel from South America to one of the Galápagos Islands.

There, they survive and reproduce.

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speciation in darwin s finches22
Speciation in Darwin's Finches
  • Geographic Isolation

Some birds from species A cross to a second island.

The two populations no longer share a gene pool.

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speciation in darwin s finches23
Changes in the Gene PoolSpeciation in Darwin's Finches

Seed sizes on the second island favor birds with large beaks.

The population on the second island evolves into population B, with larger beaks.

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speciation in darwin s finches24
Speciation in Darwin's Finches
  • Reproductive Isolation
    • If population B birds cross back to the first island, they will not mate with birds from population A.
    • Populations A and B are separate species.

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speciation in darwin s finches25
Speciation in Darwin's Finches
  • Ecological Competition
    • As species A and B compete for available seeds on the first island, they continue to evolve in a way that increases the differences between them.
    • A new species—C—may evolve.

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speciation in darwin s finches26
Speciation in Darwin's Finches
  • Continued Evolution
    • This process of isolation, genetic change, and reproductive isolation probably repeated itself often across the entire Galápagos island chain.

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studying evolution since darwin
Studying Evolution Since Darwin
  • Studying Evolution Since Darwin
      • Scientific evidence supports the theory that living species descended with modification from common ancestors that lived in the ancient past.
      • Scientists predict that as new fossils are found, they will continue to expand our understanding of how species evolved.

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slide28
16-3

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slide29
16-3
  • When two species do not reproduce because of differences in mating rituals, the situation is referred to as
    • temporal isolation.
    • geographic isolation.
    • behavioral isolation.
    • reproductive isolation.

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slide30
16-3
  • The most important factor involved in the evolution of the Kaibab and Abert squirrels of the American Southwest appears to be
    • temporal isolation.
    • geographic isolation.
    • behavioral isolation.
    • different food sources.

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slide31
16-3
  • One finding of the Grants' research on generations of Galápagos finches was that
    • natural selection did not occur in the finches
    • natural selection can take place often and very rapidly.
    • beak size had no effect on survival rate of the finches.
    • natural selection was slow and permanent.

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slide32
16-3
  • All of the following played a role in speciation of Galápagos finches EXCEPT
    • no changes in the gene pool.
    • separation of populations.
    • reproductive isolation.
    • natural selection.

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slide33
16-3
  • Beak size in the various groups of Galápagos finches changed primarily in response to
    • climate.
    • mating preference.
    • food source.
    • availability of water.

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