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Artificial Intelligence II Shyh-Kang Jeng Department of Electrical Engineering/ Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering National Taiwan University Production System Common characteristics of reasoning problems Major components A collection of states A collection of productions

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artificial intelligence ii

Artificial Intelligence II

Shyh-Kang Jeng

Department of Electrical Engineering/

Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering

National Taiwan University

production system
Production System
  • Common characteristics of reasoning problems
  • Major components
    • A collection of states
    • A collection of productions
    • A control system
applications of production system framework
Applications of Production System Framework
  • Playing games of chess
  • Drawing logical conclusions from given facts
search trees
Search Trees
  • Control system
    • Searches the state graph to find a path from the start node to the goal
  • A strategy is to build a search tree
    • Root: start state
    • Children: states reachable by applying one production
    • Walking up the tree from the goal
productions stack
Productions Stack

Top of stack

Move the 5 tile down

Move the 3 tile right

Move the 2 tile up

Move the 5 tile left

Move the 6 tile up

tree searching strategies
Tree-Searching Strategies
  • Breadth-first search
  • Depth-first search
  • Heuristics
    • A quantitative measure to determine which state is closest to the goal
an unsolved 8 puzzle11
An Unsolved 8-Puzzle

Heuristics: 7 (sum of distances)

back propagation network
Desired

Output

Actual

Output

Inputs

Adjusting Weights

Using Error

Back Propagation Network
genetic algorithms
Genetic Algorithms
  • Apply our knowledge of natural evolution to problem-solving
  • Algorithm
    • Represent potential solutions as strings of symbols
    • A collection of potential solutions is generated and tested
    • The better examples from the collection are crossed to form a new generation of potential solutions
applications of artificial intelligence
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
  • Language processing
  • Robotics
  • Database systems
  • Expert systems
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