Artificial Intelligence II

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# Artificial Intelligence II - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Artificial Intelligence II Shyh-Kang Jeng Department of Electrical Engineering/ Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering National Taiwan University Production System Common characteristics of reasoning problems Major components A collection of states A collection of productions

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### Artificial Intelligence II

Shyh-Kang Jeng

Department of Electrical Engineering/

Graduate Institute of Communication Engineering

National Taiwan University

Production System
• Common characteristics of reasoning problems
• Major components
• A collection of states
• A collection of productions
• A control system
Applications of Production System Framework
• Playing games of chess
• Drawing logical conclusions from given facts
Search Trees
• Control system
• Searches the state graph to find a path from the start node to the goal
• A strategy is to build a search tree
• Root: start state
• Children: states reachable by applying one production
• Walking up the tree from the goal
Productions Stack

Top of stack

Move the 5 tile down

Move the 3 tile right

Move the 2 tile up

Move the 5 tile left

Move the 6 tile up

Tree-Searching Strategies
• Depth-first search
• Heuristics
• A quantitative measure to determine which state is closest to the goal
An Unsolved 8-Puzzle

Heuristics: 7 (sum of distances)

Desired

Output

Actual

Output

Inputs

Using Error

Back Propagation Network
Genetic Algorithms
• Apply our knowledge of natural evolution to problem-solving
• Algorithm
• Represent potential solutions as strings of symbols
• A collection of potential solutions is generated and tested
• The better examples from the collection are crossed to form a new generation of potential solutions
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
• Language processing
• Robotics
• Database systems
• Expert systems