anat 1 chapter 8 articulations l.
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Anat 1 Chapter 8 : Articulations. Functional / Structural Classification of Joints. Synarthrosis (no movement) Bony Fusion (Synostosis) Fibrous (Suture and Gomphosis) Cartilaginous (Synchondrosis) Amphiarthrosis (little movement) Fibrous (Syndesmosis) Cartilaginous (Symphysis).

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functional structural classification of joints
Functional / Structural Classification of Joints
  • Synarthrosis(no movement)
    • Bony Fusion (Synostosis)
    • Fibrous (Suture and Gomphosis)
    • Cartilaginous (Synchondrosis)
  • Amphiarthrosis(little movement)
    • Fibrous (Syndesmosis)
    • Cartilaginous (Symphysis)

Give example location for each

3 diarthrosis free movement
3) Diarthrosis (free movement)
  • Always synovial joints
  • mono, di-, and triaxial
  • Strength vs. motility The greater the range of motion, the weaker the joint.
  • Dislocation = luxation
  • Partial dislocation = ?
  • “Double jointed”
diarthroses synovial joints
Diarthroses = Synovial Joints
  • Have synovial cavity = space between two bones
  • Components that are always present (fig 8-1)
  • Components that are sometimes present
3 types of motion at synovial joints
3 Types of Motion at Synovial Joints
  • Linear motion = gliding
  • Angular motion :
    • flexion, extension, hyperextension
    • ab-, adduction
    • circumduction
  • Rotation
    • left - right, internal or medial, external or lateral
    • supination, pronation
special movements
Special Movements

Dorsiflexion, plantar flexion

Protraction, retraction

Elevation, depression

Eversion inversion

6 types of diarthroses
6 types of Diarthroses
  • Gliding Joint
  • Hinge Joint
  • Pivot Joint
  • Ellipsoidal joint
  • Saddle joint
  • Ball & Socket joint
gliding joint
Gliding Joint

articulating surfaces flat.

• also found between carpals and tarsals

• only slight movement - rotation prevented by ?

hinge joint
Hinge Joint

Convex surface of bone 1 fits into concave surface of bone 2

  • found in ?
  • monoaxial
pivot joint
Pivot Joint

Projection of bone 1 articulates within ring of bone 2

Also found in proximal ends of ulna and radius  pronation and supination

rotation

ellipsoidal condyloid joint
Ellipsoidal (Condyloid) Joint

Oval shaped condyle of bone 1 fits into elliptical cavity of bone 2

  • Also found between phalanges & metacarpals/-tarsals
  • Angular motion in two planes (= )
saddle joint
Saddle Joint

Articular surfaces shaped like saddle and rider

Modified condyloid joint

  • Extensive angular motion without rotation
  • Also between malleus and incus
ball and socket joint
Ball and Socket Joint

Ball like surface of bone 1 fits into cuplike depression of bone 2

  • Found in ___________
  • Allows for flexion, ab- or adduction and rotation ( _____axial)
representative articulations
Representative Articulations

Temporomandibular Joint

Mostly hinge joint, some gliding and rotation

Articular disc

intervertebral articulations
Intervertebral articulations

Gliding joints between ____________________

Intervertebral discs: (Amphiarthroses) 

  • annulus fibrosus:tough outer layer (fibrocartilage)
  • nucleus pulposus:soft, gelatinous core
  • Account for ~25% of vertebral column height – H2O loss during aging

Intervertebral ligaments

Fig 8-8

disc problems
Disc Problems

Fig 8-9

  • Slipped disc vs. herniated disc
  • Most common sites for disc problems:
    • C5 - C6
    • L4 - L5
    • L5 - S1
  • Lumbago
  • Laminectomy ( surgical removal vertebral arch by shaving laminae to access disc)
glenohumeral joint
Glenohumeral Joint
  • Type?
  • Greatest range of motion (due to loose and shallow)
  • Most frequently dislocated
  • Stability provided by?
hip joint
Hip Joint
  • Deep well fitted _______ joint
  • Participants ?
  • Stabilization:
  • Extracapsular and intracapsular ligaments (ligamentum teres = ligamentum capitis femoris)
  • Surrounding muscles
  • Most important normal movement?

Fig 8-15

knee joint
Knee Joint
  • Much more complex than elbow
  • Much less stable than other ______
  • structurally 3 separate joints
  • Extra- and intracapsular ligaments
  • Locking of knee due to external rotation of tibia

Figs 8-16 & 17

the end
The end

The end