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Sentinel Bird Surveillance for West Nile virus. Nicholas Komar, Sc.D. CDC-Arbovirus Diseases Branch Fort Collins, CO. West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle. Mosquito vector. Incidental infections. WNV. WNV. Incidental infections. Bird reservoir hosts. WNV Surveillance Modalities.

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sentinel bird surveillance for west nile virus

Sentinel Bird Surveillance for West Nile virus

Nicholas Komar, Sc.D.

CDC-Arbovirus Diseases Branch

Fort Collins, CO

slide2
West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle

Mosquito vector

Incidental infections

WNV

WNV

Incidental infections

Bird

reservoir hosts

wnv surveillance modalities
WNV Surveillance Modalities
  • Dead birds (especially crows)
  • Mosquitoes
  • Live wild bird sentinels
  • Live captive sentinels (e.g. chickens)
  • Veterinary surveillance
  • Human surveillance
slide4
The success of sentinel bird surveillance depends solely on the effort expended by surveillance workers.
wnv surveillance totals 2000 reported to cdc thru 1 25 01
WNV Surveillance Totals, 2000Reported to CDC thru 1/25/01

* Confirmed & Probable cases; ** includes 7 from NYC

slide6
WNV seroprevalence, cumulative

% Pos for Neut Ab

Species NE Queens ’99 S.I.’00 Chicken 63 6

Pigeon 27 54

Mallard 6 8

House sparrow 60 9

Cardinal -- 69

Catbird -- 33

Dog 11 --

Horse 6 --

Human 2.6 0.5

can chickens be used as sentinels
Can Chickens be used as Sentinels?
  • Highly susceptible (for development of antibodies)
  • Resistant to mortality
  • Non-infectious to eachother
  • Non-infectious to handlers
  • Non-infectious to mosquitoes
pathogenicity of wnv in chickens

Pathogenicity of WNV in Chickens

USDA-APHIS-NVSL:

Senne, Pederson, Hutto, Taylor, Schmitt, Panigrahy

Avian Dis 44:642-649, 2000

do chickens develop wn viremia
Mean Days Mean PeakSpecies n Infectious* Viremia ** ci***Blue jay 2 4 12.3 2.4Common grackle 6 3 9.4 1.0House sparrow 6 3 8.9 0.9House finch 2 6 8.8 0.8American robin 2 3 8.5 0.6Red-wing. blackbird 3 3 8.1 0.5Mallard 2 3 6.7 0.3European starling 6 2 6.0 0.1Canada goose 3 0 4.7 0American coot 1 0 4.6 0Rock dove 6 0 4.3 0Chicken 16 0 3.2 0Ring-neck Pheasant 3 0 2.7 0 * Infectious viremia = log 5 or greater per ml serum; ** log pfu/ml serum *** ci = susceptibility * mean infectiousness * days infectiousDo chickens develop WN viremia?
features of a sentinel chicken program
Features of a Sentinel Chicken Program
  • Chicken flocks established at known transmission foci
  • Birds are bled periodically
  • Serum samples sent immediately for testing
  • HI or M-ELISA test used for screen
  • N test for confirmation (3 days)
  • Positives replaced for accurate monitoring
new york city s sentinel chicken program
New York City’s Sentinel Chicken Program
  • Details provided by Dr. Bryan Cherry
  • 13 coops (7 birds each) at live poultry markets in 4 boroughs, plus one flock of 15 in Staten Island
  • 7 of 106 seroconverted (tested at Cornell)
  • One dead chicken tested WNV+ by NYSDOH
new york state s sentinel chicken program
New York State’s Sentinel Chicken Program
  • Details from Dr. Millie Eidson, Dr. Greg Ebel
  • Flocks placed in 4 counties: Suffolk (103 birds), Rockland (24), Westchester (70), Onondaga (47)
  • Sera screened by G-ELISA, confirmed by PRNT
  • 1 of 244 seroconverted 4 Aug in Westchester
new jersey s sentinel chicken program
New Jersey’s Sentinel Chicken Program
  • Details provided by Cheryl Farello, Dr. Bob Eisner
  • All 21 counties maintained 1-2 flocks of 3 birds each (more flocks in Ocean, Monmouth)
  • 4 of 102 seroconverted
  • Sera screened by HI, confirmed by PRNT at USDA-APHIS-VS-NVSL
  • Dates of seroconversions are 27-29 Sep from Sussex, Middlesex, Morris, Essex counties
features of a sentinel wild bird program
Features of a Sentinel Wild Bird Program
  • Sampling sites established at known transmission foci
  • Wild birds are captured periodically and banded
  • Serum samples sent immediately for testing. Virus isolation may be attempted.
  • HI, ELISA or PRNT used for screen
  • PRNT for confirmation (3 days)
  • Hatch-year birds most useful, or recaptured adults, of targeted species
summary of wild bird surveillance nyc
Summary of Wild Bird Surveillance, NYC

Species n No. POS %

House Sparrow 440 3 0.7%

Other 150 1 0.7%

Line list:Jul 21 House Sparrow Queens-Floral ParkAug 2 Mockingbird Brooklyn-Sunset ParkAug 9 House Sparrow Bronx-Orchard BeachAug 21House Sparrow Queens-Forest Park

first wnv surveillance events 2000
First WNV Surveillance Events, 2000

Sentinel wild bird, Suffolk

Horse,

Richmond

Sentinel

Chicken,

Westchester

Oc. japonicus,

Westchester;

Cx. pipiens,

Richmond

Viral activity (inferred)

Human,

Richmond

Crow,

Suffolk

Crow,

Richmond

Mar

Jun

Jul

Aug

Apr

Sep

Oct

culex sp wn virus infections july 15 24 2000
Culex sp. WN virus infectionsJuly 15-24, 2000

* Minimum Infection Ratio = # infected/1000 tested

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