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Review Chapter. Microcomputer Systems Hardware, Software, and the Operating System. Overview. Operating system of choice today is Windows 95/98. Overview. Previously MS-DOS was the operating system of choice. Overview. When using MS-DOS … only one application can

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review chapter
Review Chapter

Microcomputer Systems

Hardware, Software, and theOperating System

Ch Review

overview
Overview

Operating system of choice today is Windows 95/98

Ch Review

overview3
Overview

Previously MS-DOS was the operating system of choice.

Ch Review

overview4
Overview

When using MS-DOS …

  • only one application can

be run at any given time

  • there is no sharing of

resources

Ch Review

overview5
Overview

When using Windows …

  • more than one program

can run at any given time

  • data can be shared

between programs

Ch Review

overview6
Overview

Still important to know DOS even though Windows 95 OS

no longer requires it.

Ch Review

an introduction to computers
An Introduction to Computers

Widespread use of computers in all sectors of our lives.

Ch Review

categories of computers
Categories of Computers

Four major categories of computers:

  • Supercomputer
  • Mainframe
  • Minicomputer
  • Microcomputer

Ch Review

computer components10
Computer Components

For a computer to function it needs …

  • hardware
  • software
  • data

Ch Review

microcomputer hardware components
Microcomputer Hardware Components

System configuration …

the basic hardware components of a complete

operating system.

Ch Review

the system unit
The System Unit

System unit …

houses the electronic and mechanical parts of the

computer.

Ch Review

central processing unit
Central Processing Unit

Central Processing Unit (CPU) …

the brains of the computer.

Ch Review

central processing unit16
Central Processing Unit

Bus …

a connection or path (wires) between the CPU and the

input/output devices.

Ch Review

random access memory
Random Access Memory

Random Access Memory (RAM) …

the workspace of the computer.

Ch Review

cache memory
Cache Memory

Cache Memory …

a place in memory where data can be stored for quick

access.

Ch Review

read only memory
Read-only Memory

Read-only memory

(ROM) …

designed to hold permanently stored programs installed by

the computer manufacturer.

Ch Review

read only memory20
Read-only Memory

ROM …

is sometimes called Firmware.

Ch Review

adapter cards
Adapter Cards

Adapter Cards …

printed circuit boards installed in the computer to

allow installation and use of

peripheral devices.

Ch Review

controllers
Controllers

Controller …

determines number and kinds of devices that can be

attached to a computer.

Ch Review

input output adapter cards
Input/Output Adapter Cards

Input/Output (I/O) …

the process of data and program instructions going in

and out of the CPU.

Ch Review

input output adapter cards24
Input/Output Adapter Cards

Input/Output Adapter Cards …

enables communication with devices.

Ch Review

input output adapter cards25
Input/Output Adapter Cards

A typical I/O card has both a …

  • serial port (COM port)
  • parallel port (LPT port)

Ch Review

peripherals input devices
Peripherals:Input Devices

Input Devices …

used to get data or information into computer.

Ch Review

peripherals output devices
Peripherals:Output Devices

Output Devices …

used to view data or information that is in the

computer.

Ch Review

output devices monitors
Output Devices:Monitors

The computer monitor is a common output device.

Ch Review

output devices monitors30
Output Devices:Monitors

Monitor resolution is measured by the number of pixels on the screen.

Ch Review

output devices monitors31
Output Devices:Monitors

There are two types of monitors available:

  • Interlaced
  • Non-interlaced

Ch Review

output devices monitors32
Output Devices:Monitors

A video display adapter card (video card) controls the monitor.

Ch Review

output devices printers
Output Devices:Printers

The printer is an output device that is used to produce a hard (paper) copy.

Ch Review

modems
Modems

Other output devices include …

  • phone modems
  • cable modems

Ch Review

modems35
Modems

MOdulator/DEModulator

(Modem) …

translates digital signals into analog signals that travel

over phone or cable lines.

Ch Review

disks and disk drives
DisksandDisk Drives

External (Secondary) storage media …

is needed in order to save information permanently.

Ch Review

disks and disk drives37
DisksandDisk Drives

Two types of common secondary storage media are:

  • Floppy disks
  • Hard disks

Ch Review

capacity measurement bits and bytes
Capacity Measurement:Bits and Bytes

A computer is made up of switches that are either in an “on” state or an “off” state.

Ch Review

capacity measurement bits and bytes39
Capacity Measurement:Bits and Bytes

Binary digit (BIT) …

the smallest unit that a computer can recognize.

Ch Review

capacity measurement bits and bytes40
Capacity Measurement:Bits and Bytes

Byte …

a unit of measurement that is comprised of eight bits.

Ch Review

capacity measurement bits and bytes41
Capacity Measurement:Bits and Bytes

Computer storage and memory are both measured in bytes.

Ch Review

floppy disks
Floppy Disks

The two types of floppy disks are the …

  • 3 - 1/2 inch disk
  • 5 - 1/4 inch disk

Ch Review

floppy disks43
Floppy Disks

Ch Review

cd roms
CD-ROMs

Compact disc (CD) …

a common transport and storage device for software.

Ch Review

cd roms45
CD-ROMs

DVD is an enhancement of CD-ROM technology.

Ch Review

removable disks
Removable Disks

The removable disk is another type of external storage media.

Ch Review

hard disks
Hard Disks

The hard disk …

  • is a non-removable

disk

  • holds more info than a

removable floppy disk

Ch Review

hard disks48
Hard Disks

Ch Review

dividing the disk
DividingtheDisk

Disks are divided into numbered tracks and sectors.

Ch Review

disk drives
Disk Drives

Disk drive …

writes information to and from a disk.

Ch Review

disk drives52
Disk Drives

Cluster …

basic unit of disk storage.

Ch Review

disk drives53
Disk Drives

Ch Review

device names
Device Names

Device …

a place for a computer to send or receive information.

Ch Review

device names55
Device Names

Ch Review

software
Software

Software is …

the step-by-step instructions that tell the computer what to

do.

Ch Review

software57
Software

Two categories of software:

  • Application software
  • System software

Ch Review

software58
Software

System software is divided into three categories:

  • Operating systems
  • System utility
  • Programming

language processor

Ch Review

software59
Software

The OS supervises …

  • the processing of

application programs

  • all computer input/output

Ch Review

software60
Software

The term Operating System is generic.

Ch Review

software61
Software

In Windows 95/98, “MS-DOS prompt” is the same as …

  • “command line”
  • “command prompt”

Ch Review

operating system fundamentals
Operating SystemFundamentals

Operating system (OS) …

is a program that is always working.

Ch Review

operating system fundamentals63
Operating SystemFundamentals

ROM-BIOS …

provides the interface between the hardware and the

OS.

Ch Review

operating system fundamentals64
Operating SystemFundamentals

The Boot Up Process:

1. Runs a program in ROM-BIOS which does

a self check.

2. ROM-BIOS checks to see if disk drive is

installed.

3. Looks for boot record.

4. When proper boot record found, reads

record from disk into RAM.

5. Turns control over to this program.

Ch Review

operating system fundamentals65
Operating SystemFundamentals

Command processor …

the program that the user communicates and interacts

with.

Ch Review

operating system fundamentals66
Operating SystemFundamentals

The OS utilizes two types of commands:

  • Internal
  • External

Ch Review

operating system fundamentals67
Operating SystemFundamentals

An executable program will have a file name with one of the three following file extensions …

  • .com
  • .exe
  • .bat

Ch Review

networks
Networks

A network …

  • is two or more computers

connected together

  • enables users to

communicate and share

resources

Ch Review

networks69
Networks

Two kinds of networks:

  • LAN
  • WAN

Ch Review

networks70
Networks

Ch Review