Human Population Growth and the Environment. Explosive Population Growth Limited Natural Resources Increasing Environmental Stress Sustainable Use?.
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A Million Years Of Human Growth (1)
At 1990 fertility rates: population would grow to 110 billion by 2100
Scenario - current population trend, doubled resources (5)
Rate increase faster than population growth
global demand for water has tripled.
Groundwater quantity and quality are declining due to over-pumping, runoff from fertilizers and pesticides, and leaking of industrial waste.
Half a billion people live in countries defined as waterstressed or water-scarce;
By 2025, that figure is expected to surge to between 2.4 billion and 3.4 billion. - - UNFPA
The poorest 20% of the world share less of the wealth
% of global income
0.6°C rise in last 100 years
The sea level has risen an estimated 10-20 centimetres, largely as a result of melting ice masses and the expansion of oceans linked to regional and global warming.
Small island nations and low-lying cities and farming areas face severe flooding.” -UNFDP
“Farmers, ranchers, loggers, and developers have cleared about half the world’s original forest cover, and another 30 per cent is degraded or fragmented.”
-Bryant et al. 1997
“Three quarters of the world’s fish stocks are now fished at or beyond sustainable limits. Industrial fleets have fished out at least 90 per cent of large ocean predators in the last 50 years.”
1. Cohen, Joel, How Many People Can The Earth Support?, W. W. Norton & Co., New York, 1995, p79-82.
2. Kates, Robert, Population, technology, and the human environment: A thread through time, Technological Trajectories and the Human Environment, J Ausubel and H.D.Langford, Eds., National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1997, page 38 (concept credited to Deevey, E., The human population, Scientific American, 203, no.9 (September) 1960, pages 194-204.)
3. Cohen, op. cit., p139.
4. Kates, op cit., p50-51.
5. Meadows, Donella H.. et al, Beyond the Limits, Chelsea Green Publishing Co., White River Junction, Vermont, 1992, p128-140.
6. Meadows, op. cit., p7.
7. Meadows, op cit., Chapter 3, The Limits: Sources and Sinks, p51.
8. Meadows, op cit., Chapter 3, The Limits: Sources and Sinks, p55.
9. Meadows, op cit., Chapter 3, The Limits: Sources and Sinks, p67-8.
10. Ausubel, J, and H.D.Langford, Eds., Technological Trajectories and the Human Environment, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1997, p21 and 86
11. Cohen, op. cit., p52.
12. Wilson, Edward O., Foreword to 1999 edition, The Diversity of Life, W.W.Norton & Co., New York, 1992.
13. Wilson, E.O.,The Diversity of Life, W.W.Norton & Co., New York, 1992.
14..Meadows, op. cit, p92-96.
15. National Research Council, Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change, National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 2000
16. Dunn, Seth, Decarbonizing the energy economy in Brown, Lester et al, State of the World,W.W.Norton & Co., New York, 2001, page 85
17. Cerf, Christopher, and Victor Navansky, The Experts Speak, Pantheon Books, New York, 1984, revised 2000.