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Coastal monitoring and forecasting systems in Finland by FIMR . Pekka Alenius Leading scientist Finnish Institute of Marine Research POL Workshop Mallorca 22.-24.10.2007. Authorities that do coastal observations in Finland.

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Coastal monitoring and forecasting systems in finland by fimr l.jpg

Coastal monitoring and forecasting systems in Finland by FIMR

Pekka Alenius

Leading scientist

Finnish Institute of Marine Research

POL Workshop

Mallorca 22.-24.10.2007


Authorities that do coastal observations in finland l.jpg
Authorities that do coastal observations in Finland FIMR

  • In Finland there are several authorities doing coastal observations. Among these are

  • Finnish Institute of Marine Research (FIMR)

  • Finnish Environment Institute (FEI)

  • Regional Environment Centres (13 of which 6 at coasts)

  • Environment centres of big cities

  • This presentation concentrates on the activities of FIMR which is the main Finnish actor in (open) sea monitoring.


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Observation and forecasting activities of FIMR FIMR

  • Sea level

  • Surface waves

  • Ice

  • Hydrography (T & S)

  • Cyano-bacterial biomass

  • Nutrients

  • Ecosystem

  • http://www.fimr.fi/en.html


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Sea level observations FIMR

  • FIMR has 13 sea level stations

  • Oldest in Hanko since 1887

  • In Helsinki since 1904

  • Youngest in Rauma since 1933

  • Observation interval 1 minute

  • Real-time data transfer to FIMR

  • Temperature is measured, too

  • See http://www.itameriportaali.fi/en/

  • itamerinyt/en_GB/vedenkorkeus/


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Sea level forecasts FIMR

  • -Three models (old, Wetehinen, OAAS)

  • -Meteorological input from HIRLAM (54 h forecasts and ECMWF up to 10 day forecasts)

  • -Two different boundary conditions in the Danish Straits

  • -Each model is run four times a day (every 6 hours)

  • -Software for estimating the forecast from ensemble of model results

  • -Manmade forecasts are done if ordered by customers



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Surface waves FIMR

  • Observations at Northern Baltic Proper (1) and near Helsinki (2)

  • Wave height

  • Map of the Baltic Sea

  • 1.Northern Baltic Proper 59°15 N 21°00 E

  • Significant wave height: 0.7 m

  • Highest individual wave: 1.3 m

  • Sea surface temperature: 11.3 °C

  • 22.10.2007 at 18:00 UTC

  • See: http://www.itameriportaali.fi/en/itamerinyt/en_GB/aallonkorkeus/


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Wave forecasts FIMR

  • http://www.itameriportaali.fi/en/itamerinyt/en_GB/aallonkorkeus/

  • http://www.itameriportaali.fi/en/itamerinyt/en_GB/aaltoennuste/



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What ice means to Finland FIMR

  • The Baltic Sea ice seasons in 3 severity classes:

  • Mild season: All Finnish harbours are icebound

  • Average season: Ice from the north lat. of Stockholm

  • Severe season: Baltic Sea is almost or totally frozen

Ice for 6-7 months

3 weeks

3-4 months


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Finnish Ice Service FIMR

  • -Observations

  • -Remote sensing algorithm development

  • -Forecasts

  • -Serves winter navigation in close cooperation with Finnish Board of Navigation


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Finnish PolarView products FIMR

  • -SAR based ice thickness charts

  • spatial resolution 500x500 m

  • End users; shipping

  • 30 minutes after the SAR image is downloaded

  • On the average 160 charts in an ice season


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Ice forecasts page FIMR http://haavi.fimr.fi/polarview/forecast.php

  • -Ice motion and concentration

  • -Mean ice thickness

  • -Ridged ice thickness

  • -Ridged ice concentration

  • -Compressive region

  • -Deformed ice fraction

  • -Area

  • FROM

  • -Northern Baltic Sea

  • -Bay of Bothnia

  • -Gulf of Finland


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Alg@line FIMR - Operational Monitoring of the Baltic Sea

  • Alg@line monitors the fluctuations in the Baltic Sea ecosystem in real-time using several approaches:

  • -research vessels

  • -high-frequency automated sampling onboard several merchant ships

  • -satellite imagery

  • -buoy recordings

  • -traditional sampling in coastal waters

  • Without the high-frequent observations with the ship-of-opportunity technique, the rapid fluctuations in the Baltic Sea ecosystem could not be monitored


What alg@line is http www itameriportaali fi en levatiedotus en gb levatiedotus l.jpg
What FIMR Alg@line ishttp://www.itameriportaali.fi/en/levatiedotus/en_GB/levatiedotus/

  • -Alg@line is the only research project in the Baltic Sea region, which utilizes the ship-of-opportunity technique in the monitoring of the state of the environment on this scale. Alg@line has analyzers and sample collectors on five ships.

  • -The information based on the unattended recordings on the ships is available to anyone on Internet at Baltic Sea Portal and on Internet pages of the Finnish Institute of Marine Research at Baltic Sea Now

  • -Monitoring research of Alg@line is on the highest level of its field. This has been made possible through unique cooperation with Finnish and foreign research institutes and scientific communities.


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Alg@line FIMR SOOP measurements and routes

  • Equipment onboard:

  • - flow through fluorometer

  • - thermosalinograph

  • - GPS navigator

  • - computer

  • - refridgerated water sampler

  • Parameters onboard:

  • latitude, longitude, date, time

  • - in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence

  • - temperature,salinity

  • On laboratory:

  • - chlorophyll a

  • phytoplankton species composition

  • and relative abundances

  • - phosphate and total phosphorus

  • - ammonium, nitrate and total nitrogen

  • - silicate

  • - partly turbidity


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Alg@line FIMR example:Finnmaid 17 - 18 October 2007

  • SST (red) and SSS (blue)

  • Chl-a

  • along the route of the ferry Finnmaid (Travemünde - Helsinki).


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BalEco - A range of brackish water ecosystem models FIMR

  • BalEco is a suite of ecological models

    • for the description of brackish water ecosystems,

    • with the Baltic Sea especially in mind.

  • Brackish waters are demanding biological environments, and require a special treatment to capture the salinity adaptation of marine and freshwater organisms.


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BalEco1 FIMR

  • BalEco1, the first level model, is embedded in a prototype for a scientific forecasting system of the Baltic Sea.

  • The system builds on well-established, scientifically validated models and boundary conditions where available

  • Combines them with observation-derived state estimates to arrive at routine short-term forecasts of the Baltic Sea state.

  • The short-term forecasts are used for model validation purposes and ecosystem predictability studies.


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Ecosystem model forecasts FIMR

  • - Temperature, salinity, cyanobacterial biomass


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Bluegreen algae prognosis FIMR

  • -Is done annually after winter monitoring cruise

  • -joint effort of FIMR and FEI

  • -published eg. in Alg@line pages


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Monitoring cruises by rv Aranda FIMR

  • -four annual monitoring cruises to the Baltic Sea

  • -chemical monitoring in January

  • -zoobenthos and oxygen in May-June

  • -cyanobacterial blooms/biology in August

  • -chemical monitoring in December

  • -other scientific cruises in between

  • Aranda in the web: http://www.fimr.fi/en/aranda.html


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Example of usefulness of monitoring cruises FIMR American comb jelly (Mnemiopsis leidyi)

  • The sudden spreading in the northern Baltic Sea has surprised nearly everyone.

  • the population density was as high as 600 individuals per square metre.

  • was found to be extremely adaptable It can reproduce in the northern Baltic Sea in colder conditions than previously observed.


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FIMR-BMP FIMR