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Web Server Administration. Chapter 1 The Basics of Server and Web Server Administration. Overview. Review the Internet and the World Wide Web Learn about server administration Learn about Web server administration Explore the common tasks and services performed by administrators

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web server administration

Web Server Administration

Chapter 1

The Basics of Server and Web Server Administration

  • Review the Internet and the World Wide Web
  • Learn about server administration
  • Learn about Web server administration
  • Explore the common tasks and services performed by administrators
  • Examine networking building blocks
  • Compare Web server platforms
review the internet and the world wide web
Review the Internet and the World Wide Web
  • The Internet is a worldwide network of networks
    • Shares WAN used by the international telecommunications network
    • Uses TCP/IP
  • Where the Internet uses the HTTP protocol, it is called the Web
    • Web servers use HTTP to communicate
  • The Internet is not centrally controlled
review the internet and the world wide web4
Review the Internet and the World Wide Web
  • Internet had its origins in the 1960s
  • In 1995 a high-speed backbone was created
    • Included 4 network access points (NAPs)
    • More have been created since then
  • Now much Internet traffic is handled without going through NAPs
    • Peering agreements allow this
understanding server administration
Understanding Server Administration
  • Server administrators
    • Focus on the LAN
    • Provide access to software and services
    • Make sure environment is reliable and consistent
    • Minimize harm that users can do to network
working with users
Working with Users
  • A LAN can server hundreds or even thousands of users
  • Users need to be productive
  • Users like consistency
    • Roaming profiles allow users to have the same personalized desktop environment on multiple computers
establishing access control
Establishing Access Control
  • Users need just enough access to do their jobs, but not more
  • Typically, users are organized into groups, and groups are given access to network resources
  • Users can be given different access to the same resources
    • A document can be read by everyone but modified by only specific people
understanding the server environment
Understanding the Server Environment
  • All but the smallest network includes more than one server
  • With Windows computers, servers and users’ computers can be organized into domains in order to centralize control
  • In Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003, domains can be grouped into forests
understanding web server administration
Understanding Web server Administration
  • Web server administrators focus on the Internet
    • Need to work with ISPs and Web page developers
  • Typically, a Web server provides information to anyone who requests it over the Internet
  • Web servers can contain other applications such as FTP and e-mail
understanding web server administration10
Understanding Web server Administration
  • Depending on the size of the organization, some tasks may be delegated
    • Web page development
    • Database design
    • Programming
    • E-mail administration
    • Security
selecting programs and databases
Selecting Programs and Databases
  • Web server administrators need to install programming languages
  • Web developers use a variety of languages
    • Active Server Pages (ASP)
      • Original language from Microsoft
    • ASP.Net
      • A newer environment that includes many languages
    • Java Server Pages (JSP)
selecting programs and databases12
Selecting Programs and Databases
  • Non-Microsoft languages are popular, even on Microsoft Web servers
    • Perl – one of the first and still popular
    • PHP – easy to use
    • Java Server Pages (JSP)
    • Macromedia ColdFusion
selecting programs and databases13
Selecting Programs and Databases
  • A database management system (DBMS) is used to store data used with Web pages
    • Microsoft Access is appropriate for small sites
    • Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle 9i, and MySQL are sophisticated DBMSs for larger sites
  • Standard Query Language (SQL) is the language used to communicate with the DBMS
managing e mail servers
Managing E-mail Servers
  • Open by design to accept e-mail from anyone
  • Spam can be a problem to manage
    • Specific utilities can be used to help minimize spam
  • Viruses are commonly sent by e-mail
    • Use virus detection software and keep it updated
other applications
Other Applications
  • Firewall
    • Helps protect your Web server environment from attack
  • FTP
    • A service that allows users to download files from and upload files to a server
  • DNS
    • Translates host names such as www.technowidgets.com to an IP address
administrators common tasks and services
Administrators' Common Tasks and Services
  • Installing and configuring systems
  • Maintaining security
  • Monitoring the system
  • Maintenance and backup
tcp ip protocols
TCP/IP Protocols
  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
    • Web servers implement this protocol
  • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
    • Used by e-mail servers (and sometimes Web servers) to send e-mail
  • Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3)
    • Used to retrieve e-mail
tcp ip protocols20
TCP/IP Protocols
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
    • Transfers files to and from server
  • Domain Name Service (DNS)
    • Translates host names to IP addresses and IP addresses to host names
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    • Creates a reliable connection between two computers
tcp ip protocols21
TCP/IP Protocols
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
    • Does not establish a connection, just sends messages
  • Internet Protocol (IP)
    • Provides addressing scheme
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
    • Provides error messages
connecting your lan to the internet
Connecting Your LAN to the Internet
  • Your ISP connects to the Internet
  • A WAN connection is used between your building and the ISP
  • A T-Carrier connection is often used
    • A digital connection for voice and data
other ways to connect to the internet
Other ways to Connect to the Internet
  • Integrated services digital network (ISDN)
    • Dial-up access
    • Basic Rate Interface (BRI) up to 128 Kbps
    • Primary Rate Interface (PRI) up to 1.544 Mbps
  • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
    • Often differing speeds for uploads and downloads
    • Depending on type, up to 6.1 Mbps for downloads and 1.544 Mbps for uploads
  • Cable Modem
    • Shared access cable provided by cable TV company
web hosting solutions
Web Hosting Solutions
  • Standard hosting
    • Your site resides on the same computer with many other sites
    • Cheapest solution
  • Dedicated server
    • You have a server that only you use
  • Co-location
    • Your own server is physically located at the company that does your Web hosting
web server platforms microsoft
Web Server Platforms-Microsoft
  • Windows NT (IIS 4)
    • IIS (Internet Information Server) was added in the mid-1990s, and support for ASP was added later
  • Windows 2000 (IIS 5)
    • IIS part of the OS from the beginning
    • .NET Framework add-on allows use of ASP.NET
  • Windows Server 2003 (IIS 6)
    • .NET Framework integrated into OS
other microsoft server products
Other Microsoft Server Products
  • Application Center
    • Allows you to manage a cluster of servers as if it is one server
  • Biztalk Server
    • Connects to your business partners using XML
  • Commerce Server
    • Builds e-commerce sites in a short amount of time
other microsoft server products29
Other Microsoft Server Products
  • Internet Security and Acceleration Server
    • Combines a firewall product with a Web cache
  • Operations Manager
    • Helps decrease support costs for a server environment
  • SharePoint Portal Server
    • Set up a site that is highly personalized
unix linux
  • UNIX was introduced in 1969
  • Linux is from the early 1990s
    • Based on MINIX
  • Three basic components
    • Kernel – central portion of OS
    • File system – provides input and output mechanisms
    • Shell – provides user interface
  • Source code is freely available
    • Developers can make changes
  • Available from a number of organizations
    • Red Hat
    • Mandrake
    • SuSe
  • Server administration focuses on LANs
  • Web server administration focuses on the Internet
  • Both types of administrators install, configure, and maintain servers
  • Many pieces make up the network
  • There are many Web server platforms from which to choose