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Evaluation of ES-2 by the Occupant Safety Research Partnership of USCAR

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  1. Evaluation of ES-2by theOccupant Safety Research Partnershipof USCAR presented by Annette L. Irwin representing the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers and the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles

  2. Background • Occupant Safety Research Partnership of USCAR Conducted Tests with ES-2 • Full-Scale Vehicle Tests • Biofidelity Tests of ISO TR 9790 • Results Published in 46th Stapp • Byrnes, et al., “ES-2 Dummy Biomechanical Responses,” Paper 2002-22-0018

  3. Purpose • To Evaluate • Modifications from EuroSID-1 to ES-2 • Biofidelity • Left-to-Right Symmetry • Repeatability • Reproducibility

  4. Full-Scale Testing • FMVSS 214 Configuration at 54 km/h • 2 Small Sedans • EuroSID-1 Driver & Left Rear Passenger • ES-2 Driver & Left Rear Passenger • 2 Large Sedans • EuroSID-1 Driver & Left Rear Passenger • ES-2 Driver & Left Rear Passenger

  5. Results of Full-Scale Testing WithSmall Sedan • EuroSID-1 Exhibited Rib Binding • ES-2 Did Not Exhibit Rib Binding • ES-2 Exhibited Rib Oscillation

  6. Results of Full-Scale Testing With Large Sedan • EuroSID-1 Exhibited Pubic “Noise” Spike • ES-2 Did Not Exhibit Pubic “Noise” Spike

  7. Biofidelity Testing • ISO TR 9790 (1999) • 23 Drop, Pendulum & Sled Tests • Assess Biofidelity of the Head, Neck, Shoulder, Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvis • 3 to 6 Repeat Tests Conducted • Some Tests Conducted on Both Sides • Some Tests Conducted on Two Different ES-2 Dummies

  8. Results of Biofidelity TestingHead Test 1 – 200 mm Drop onto Rigid Surface

  9. 200 Corridor 150 Pk. Resultant Head Accel. (G) 100 50 ES-2 0 Results of Biofidelity TestingHead Test 1 – 200 mm Drop onto Rigid Surface

  10. Results of Biofidelity TestingNeck Test 2 – 6.7 G Sled Test

  11. 70 60 Corridor 50 40 Pk. Flexion Angle (degrees) 30 20 10 ES-2 0 Results of Biofidelity TestingNeck Test 2 – 6.7 G Sled Test

  12. 25 Corridor 20 15 Pk. Lateral T1 Accel. (G) 10 5 ES-2 0 Results of Biofidelity TestingShoulder Test 3 – 12.2 G Sled Test

  13. 8 6 ES-2 Corridor Pendulum Force (kN) 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (ms) Results of Biofidelity TestingThorax Test 2 – 6.7 m/s Rigid Pendulum Impact

  14. 10 8 ES-2 Corridor 6 Armrest Force (kN) 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (ms) Results of Biofidelity TestingAbdomen Test 1 - 1 m Drop onto Rigid Armrest

  15. 8 Corridor 6 Pk. Pendulum Force (kN) 4 2 ES-2 0 Results of Biofidelity TestingPelvis Test 1 - 6 m/s Rigid Pendulum

  16. 10 Excellent 8 Good 6 Fair Biofidelity Rating 4 Marginal 2 Unacceptable 0 ES-2 Abd. Neck Shldr. Head Pelvis Thorax Overall Results of Biofidelity TestingES-2 Ratings by Body Region

  17. Neck Shoulder 10 Thorax Excellent 8 Good 6 Fair Biofidelity Rating 4 Marginal 2 Unacceptable 0 Abd. Neck Shldr. Head Pelvis Thorax Overall ES-2 EuroSID-1 ES-2 Biofidelity Compared to EuroSID-1 ES-2 Exhibits Degraded Biofidelity of the

  18. 8 6 Corridor TC ES-2 Abdomen Force (kN) NHTSA ES-2 4 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 Time (ms) Results of Biofidelity TestingReproducibility Concerns – 8.9 m/s Sled

  19. 2 Tests With NHTSA ES-2 Dummy 4 Tests With TC ES-2 Dummy Results of Biofidelity TestingReproducibility Concerns – 6.8 m/s Sled

  20. Results of Biofidelity TestingReproducibility Concerns – 6.8 m/s Sled 28% Difference in Peak Pelvic Acceleration Between NHTSA and TC Dummies

  21. Results of Biofidelity Testing • Overall Biofidelity Rated Only Fair • Neck, Shoulder & Thorax Were Less Biofidelic Than EuroSID-1 • Repeatability Acceptable • Left-to-Right Symmetry Acceptable • Reproducibility Not Acceptable

  22. 8 6 ES-2 Corridor Pendulum Force (kN) 4 WorldSID 2 prototype 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (ms) ES-2 Biofidelity Compared to WorldSIDThorax Test 2 – 6.7 m/s Rigid Pendulum Impact

  23. 10 8 ES-2 Corridor 6 Armrest Force (kN) 4 WorldSID prototype 2 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (ms) ES-2 Biofidelity Compared to WorldSIDAbdomen Test 1 - 1 m Drop onto Rigid Armrest

  24. 20 15 ES-2 WorldSID Pendulum Force (kN) 10 prototype Corridor 5 0 4 6 8 10 12 Pendulum Velocity (m/s) ES-2 Biofidelity Compared to WorldSIDPelvis Tests 1 & 2 – Rigid Pendulum Impacts

  25. 10 Excellent 8 Good 6 Fair Biofidelity Rating 4 Marginal 2 Unacceptable 0 ES-2 Abd. Neck Shldr. Head Pelvis Thorax Overall WorldSID prototype ES-2 Biofidelity Compared to WorldSID

  26. Conclusions • Rib Binding Was Not Observed in Limited Tests With ES-2 • Pubic “Noise” Spikes Were Not Observed in Limited Tests With ES-2 • Rib Oscillations Were Observed With ES-2

  27. Conclusions - continued • Overall ES-2 Was Not Biofidelic • Rated Only Fair • Repeatability, Left-to-Right Symmetry, and Durability Were Acceptable • Reproducibility Was Not Acceptable • Every Body Region of ES-2 is Less Biofidelic Than WorldSID Prototype

  28. Acknowledgments • Transport Canada • Providing ES-2 Dummy • Conducting Tests & Providing Data • NHTSA • Providing ES-2 Dummy • Conducting Tests & Providing Data