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Buddhism during the Asuka Period (I) Asuka Period (538-710): The inception of Japanese Buddhism: 538, Korean Kingdom of Paekche dispatched a delegation to introduce Buddhism to Japanese emperor

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buddhism during the asuka period i
Buddhism during the Asuka Period (I)
  • Asuka Period (538-710): The inception of Japanese Buddhism:
    • 538, Korean Kingdom of Paekche dispatched a delegation to introduce Buddhism to Japanese emperor
    • 550, the term “Shinto” was introduced to differentiate the native religion from Buddhism and Confucianism
    • 593, Empress Suiko reigned, her nephew Prince Shotoku served as regent and promoted Buddhism; built Shitennoji
    • 588-596, built Hokoji (Asukadera)
buddhism during the asuka period ii
Buddhism during the Asuka Period (II)
  • 605, Shotoku declared Buddhism and Confucianism the state religions of Japan
  • 607, Shotoku built Horyuji in the in the Asuka valley, 645, Shotoku was succeeded by Kotoku Tenno, who began the Taiga Reform; ten Buddhist masters were appointed to be in charge of Buddhist education
  • 653, Dosho visited China
  • 685, Temmu Tenno (637-686) ordered Buddhist shrines be built in “every house” in the province
  • 710, capital was moved from Asuka to Nara; new capital was modeled after China’s capital Chang’an (Xi’an)
chnese buddhism during the asuka period of japan
Chnese Buddhism during the Asuka Period of Japan
  • Buddhism had been in China nearly 600 years by the time Prince Shotoku made it one of the state religions
  • This period is considered the period of its growth and adaptation in the history of Chinese Buddhism
  • Growth:
    • Worked with the ruling authorities
    • Built temples and monasteries
    • Sculptured images of Buddhas, bodhisattva, and arhats
    • Translated and disseminated Buddhist scriptures
growth and adaptation
Growth and Adaptation
  • Growth: (con’t)
    • pilgrimage
    • Proselytizing
    • Charity work
    • Classification of the teachings
  • Adaptation:
    • Undertook “matching meanings” in the process of translation
    • Correlated and Integrated Buddhist concepts and native Daoist and Confucian views
      • Through public debates and discussions
      • Through apologetic literature
major buddhist schools
Major Buddhist Schools
  • Ten Buddhist schools, divided into two categories:
    • Schools of Beings (Youzong)
      • Jushe (Kosa) --(Hinayana)
      • The Vinaya School, Disciplinary--(Hinanaya)
    • Schools of Non-being (Kongzong)
      • Chengshi, Establishment of Truth--(Hinayana)
      • The Three-Treatise School, Sanlun--(Mahayana)
      • The Consciousness-Only School (Weshi)--(Mahayana)
      • The Three-Stage (Sanjie)—(Mahayana)
      • Tiantai--(Mahayana)
      • Huayan--(Mahayana)
      • Chan--(Mahayana)
      • Pure Land---(Mahayana)
major buddhist scriptures and monks i
Major Buddhist Scriptures and Monks (I)
  • Some schools may not have played important roles but the scriptures and masters associated with them remain important
    • The Vinaya in Four Parts (Sifenlü)—Daoxuan (596-667)
    • The Heart Sutra (Xijing)—Xuanzang (596 or 602-664)
major buddhist scriptures and monks ii
Major Buddhist Scriptures and Monks (II)
  • The most important scriptures and influential monks:
    • The Lotus Sutra—Zhiyi (538-597), the founder of the Tiantai School
    • The Flower Garland Sutra (Huayan Sutra)—Fazang (643-712)
    • The Three Pure Land Sutras (The Smaller Sutra on Amitayu, The larger Sutra on Amitayu, The Sutra on Contemplation of Amitayu)—Tanluan (476-542), Shandao (d.u.)
buddhism during the nara period i
Buddhism during the Nara Period (I)
  • Imperial Patronage of Buddhism (710-794)
    • 716, Gembo visited China; Gyogi began to build temples and was credited with building 49 temples.
    • 741, Shomu Tenno decreed that each province was to build a seven-storied pagoda and make ten copies of the Konkomyo-saishookyo. Also each province was to establish one official temple of twenty priests to be entitled the Konkomyo-shitenno-gokoku no tera, and a temple for ten nuns to be called the Hooke-metsuzai no tera.
    • 736, Chinese vinaya master, Daoxuan (702-760), arrived in Japan.
nara buddhism ii
Nara Buddhism (II)
  • 743, Shomu Tenno built Todaiji in Nara. The temple is the largest wooden building in the world
  • 747-751, six sects of Nara Buddhism were established: Sanron, Jojitsu, Jusha, Hosso, Kegon, and Ritsu
  • 749, Shomu Tenno visited Todaiji after the casting of the Great Buddha was completed, declaring himself a servant of the Three Treasures
  • 753, Tang vinaya master, Jianzhen (Ganjin), arrived in Japan after five unsuccessful attempts
nara buddhism iii
Nara Buddhism (III)
  • 754-755, Ganjin constructed the first kaidan in Japan at Todaiji.
  • 759, Ganjin built Toshodaiji.
  • 788, Saicho founded the monastery of Hieizan (Mt. Hiei)
  • 794, Kammu Tenno moved the capital to Heian-kyo (Kyoto)
chinese buddhism during the nara japan i
Chinese Buddhism during the Nara Japan (I)
  • The Period of Sinification:
    • Continuous growth of Tiantai, Huayan, Chan Buddhism, and The Pure Land faith
      • Writing of new commentaries on scriptures related to these teachings
      • Collection of miracle tales related to the efficacy of upholding, chanting, reciting scriptures, or visualizing a specific Buddha or bodhisattva
    • Further correlation and fusion of Buddhist and native moral codes and causation theories
      • Creation of indigenous sutras—apocryphal sutras
      • Formation of great “Buddhist mountains”
chinese buddhism during the nara japan ii
Chinese Buddhism during the Nara Japan (II)
  • Cataloging scriptures and commentaries
  • Imperial Patronage
    • Tantric monks Subhakarasimha, Vajrabodhi, and Amoghavajra came to China and were highly respected by Tang emperors
    • Xuanzong decreed that every prefectures should build a Kaiyuan temple
    • Imperial promotion of the Bodhisattva Manjusri cult by ordering the building of Manjusri’s image in every temple; Mt. Wutai received imperial support
    • Government sponsored the translation of Buddhist scriptures
    • Emperors received and paid homage to Buddha’s finger bone relic at imperial palace