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Hi z = Line level Low z = Mic Level Direct Box changes impedence from line level to mic level PowerPoint Presentation
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Hi z = Line level Low z = Mic Level Direct Box changes impedence from line level to mic level - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Hi z = Line level Low z = Mic Level Direct Box changes impedence from line level to mic level. High / Low Impedance. A high impedance circuit tends to have high voltage and low current A low impedance circuit tends to have relatively low voltage and high current. Connecting Devices.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
Hi z = Line level
  • Low z = Mic Level
  • Direct Box changes impedence from line level to mic level
high low impedance
High / Low Impedance
  • A high impedance circuit tends to have high voltage and low current
  • A low impedance circuit tends to have relatively low voltage and high current
connecting devices
Connecting Devices
  • I'M CONNECTING TWO AUDIO DEVICES. IS IT IMPORTANT TO MATCH THEIR IMPEDANCES? WHAT HAPPENS IF I DON'T?
connecting devices4
Connecting Devices
  • When you connect two devices, one is the source and one is the load.
  • The source is the device that puts out a signal.
  • The load is the device you are feeding the signal into.
  • The source has a certain output impedance, and the load has a certain input impedance.
  • It’s important to match the output impedance of the source to the input impedance of the load
matching impedance
Matching Impedance
  • If the source impedance equals the load impedance, this is called "matching" impedances.
  • It results in maximum POWER transfer from the source to the load.
low z source to a high z load
low-Z source to a high-Z load
  • Suppose the source is low Z and the load is high Z
  • There is no distortion or frequency-response change caused by this connection.
  • When you plug a low-Z source (microphone) into a high-Z input you get a weak signal. That's because a high-Z input is designed to receive a relatively high voltage from a high-Z mic or instrument, and so the input is designed to have low gain. So you don't get much signal amplification.
high z source to a low z load
high-Z source to a low-Z load
  • If you connect a high-Z source to a low-Z load, you might get distortion or altered response
  • For example, suppose you connect an electric bass guitar (a high-Z device) into an XLR-type mic input (a low-Z load). The low frequencies in the signal will roll off, so the bass will sound thin.
high z source to a low z load9
high-Z source to a low-Z load
  • We want the bass guitar to be loaded by a high impedance, and we want the mic input to be fed by a low-impedance signal.
low z high z mics
Low z – High z mics
  • Most mics are low Z, and all mics with XLR (3-pin) connectors are low Z.
  • A low-Z mic can be used with hundreds of feet of cable without picking up hum or losing high frequencies.
  • A high-Z mic will lose highs and pick up hum if the cable exceeds about 10 feet
  • If your mixer has XLR inputs, they are low-Z balanced.
balanced connections
Balanced connections
  • A ¼” balanced connection uses three wires
  • Tip Signal + (Positive)
  • Ring Signal - (Negative)
  • Sleeve (Ground )
  • TRS
balanced connections19
Balanced connections
  • An XLR balanced connection uses three wires
  • Pin 1 (Ground )
  • Pin 2 + (Positive)
  • Pin 3 - (Negative)
balanced connections21
Balanced connections
  • The balanced connection has the advantage that it rejects noise and interference that may be picked up on long cable runs
unbalanced
Unbalanced
  • An unbalanced connection uses two cable wires
  • Signal
  • Ground
types of cabling
Types of Cabling
  • ¼ unbalanced line/instrument cabling
  • XLR balanced cable used for microphone and line level connections
  • RCA unbalanced line level/ phono connections
  • Speaker cable, various gauges depending on the application
  • AC Cabling
  • Patch bays are not common in live sound
  • Mutipins ( Snakes, outboard racks, consoles )
  • Inserts ( Tip, Ring, Sleeve, unbalanced x 2 )
insert cable27
Insert Cable
  • Pg. 294
  • Gives you an unbalanced input and output from a tip ring sleeve connector on the console
  • Eq’s, Compressors, Gates, Effects for a single channel
  • English an American consoles may be wired differently
  • If no signal is present flip input and output on the device being inserted
speaker cables
Speaker Cables
  • Can be used with ¼” , Banana Plug or Speakon connectors.
speaker connector30
¼” Speaker Connector
  • Tip Positive +
  • Ring Negative –
  • Do not use for instruments may cause buzz
  • Vice Versa ( Do not use Instrument cables to run speaker, may short amplifier, causing failure or damage )
banana plugs
Banana Plugs
  • 2 conductor connector positive and negative
  • Fit into binding terminals on amplifiers
  • Tab is usually wired to the negative terminal
  • Can be piggy backed, connected to each other
  • Recently outlawed in Europe
speakon connectors
Speakon Connectors
  • Three different types
  • NL2
  • NL4
  • NL8
speakon connectors34
Speakon Connectors
  • Industry Standard
  • NL2 ( Two Pin Connectors ) +1 -1
  • Used for Single Speaker Connections
  • NL4 ( Four Pin Connectors ) +1 -1, +2 -2
  • Used for two Speaker Connections ( Bi-Amp)
  • NL8 ( Eight Pin Connectors ) +1 -1, +2 -2, +3 -3, +4 -4
  • Used for 3 or 4 way Speaker Connections
speakon connectors35
Speakon Connectors
  • No universal wiring configuration
  • Check amplifier specifications for pin wiring configuration
adaptors
Adaptors
  • Adaptors are available for every possible application
rca adaptors
RCA Adaptors
  • RCA to ¼”
  • ¼” to RCA
  • Fem RCA to Fem RCA
slide49
AC
  • Alternating current
  • Standard circuits are 115 volt 15amp 60Hz
  • 1 amp = approximately 100 watts
  • Rule of thumb Maximum amount of power you can draw from one 15 amp circuit is approximately 1500 watts
slide56
IEC
  • Powered Speakers
  • Effects outboard equipment
  • Instrument amps
  • Keyboards
  • Computers
  • Consoles
  • International Electrotechnical Commission
cabling tips
Cabling Tips
  • Don’t buy cheap cable
  • Keep all cable runs tidy
  • Do not run cables through the performance area
  • Keep ac cabling and audio lines separate whenever possible to reduce noise
  • Try not to run ac lines and audio lines parallel to each other to reduce noise
  • Leave mic cable slack by the stand or instrument
  • Do not leave mic cabling slack at the snake head or piled up on top of each other
  • Leave speaker cable slack by the speakers not the amps
cabling tips58
Cabling Tips
  • Do not share ac power with lighting
  • Use the proper length cable for the application whenever possible
  • Use Sub snakes whenever possible to reduce clutter
  • Use strain relief whenever possible
  • Don’t tug on cables
  • Wrap over under
  • Pack up and wrap cabling in the reverse order of running them