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POS 339/439: 09/20/2010. Website. http://faculty.roosevelt.edu/erickson/courses/pos339-439/ Course status: Presentation selection – make sure you get them in. Paper Assignment 1 due 9/29. Course agenda. Discussion of concepts introduced by readings.

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pos 339 439 09 20 2010
POS 339/439: 09/20/2010
  • Website.
    • http://faculty.roosevelt.edu/erickson/courses/pos339-439/
  • Course status:
    • Presentation selection – make sure you get them in.
    • Paper Assignment 1 due 9/29.
  • Course agenda.
    • Discussion of concepts introduced by readings.
  • Martin Chapter 4: Terror from Above State Terrorism.
  • Opening Viewpoint: State Terrorism as Domestic Policy in Central America.
    • Contras in Nicaragua.
    • Battalion 3-16 in Honduras.
    • ORDEN in El Salvador.
    • Guatemala – Plan Victoria 82.
    • State Terrorism in Middle East – Libya bombings and PFLP and Abu Nidal.
    • Sudan and Syria.
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  • Terrorism as foreign policy and terrorism as domestic policy.
  • Political violence by the stat is the most organized and far reaching application of terrorist violence.
  • Many resources available to the state exceeds extent of other types of terrorism.
  • Why do governments use terrorism as an instrument of policy?
    • Internationally state defines interests in a number of ways – states can choose to behave unilaterally or cooperatively, cautiously or aggressively.
    • Domestically – state’s interests involve the need to maintain internal security and order.
  • States choose from a range of overt and covert options.
  • Terrorism by states is characterized by official government support for political violence, repression, and intimidation.
  • State terrorism conducted by personnel and unofficial agents used and encouraged by the state.
  • Invasion of East Timor by Indonesia as an example of state terrorism.
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. State as Terrorist: A State Terrorism Paradigm.

  • Models of State Terrorism.
    • Sponsors of terrorism.
    • Enablers of terrorism.
    • Cooperators in counterterrorism.
  • State terrorism incorporates many types of violence.
    • Warfare.
    • Genocide.
    • Assassinations.
    • Torture.
  • Understanding State Sponsored Terrorism.
    • Patrice Lumumba People’s Friendship University.
    • Usually covert secret policy.
      • State patronage for terrorism.
      • State assistance for terrorism.
  • State Sponsorship: The Patronage Model.
    • Patronage in Foreign Policy Domain.
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  • US support for Contras state patronage model.
  • Patronage in Domestic Policy.
    • Rationalization.
    • Suppress clear and present danger to national security.
    • Maintain law and order during times of national crisis.
    • Protect fundamental cultural values that are threatened by subversives.
    • Restore stability to government institutions.
  • State Sponsorship: The Assistance Model.
    • Assistance in the foreign policy domain.
    • Support for politically violent proxy operating beyond its borders.
    • Plausible deniability built into the relationship between state and proxy.
    • Deny the link exists; admit link exists but product of rogue operation; admit or deny link but label as freedom fighters; blame movements adversary for creating environment of violence.
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  • Assistance in Domestic Policy Domain.
    • Blame adversary for breakdown in order and call on people to assist government in restoring order.
    • Proxy violence is evidence of popular support.
    • Call on parties to cease hostilities but blame violence on adversary.
    • Assure everyone that government is seeking to restore order but regime is unable to immediately end violence.
    • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution as example.
  • Violence Abroad: State Terrorism as Foreign Policy.
    • Latter half of 20th century many states used terrorism as foreign policy.
    • Advantages of state terrorism in foreign domain.
      • State terrorism is inexpensive.
      • State terrorism has limited consequences.
      • State terrorism can be effective.
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  • Range of state terrorism as foreign policy.
    • Ideological support.
    • Financial support.
    • Military support.
    • Operational support.
    • Initiating terrorist attacks.
    • Direct involvement in terrorist attacks.
  • Moral Support: Politically Sympathetic Sponsorship.
    • Example: Iran support for Hezbollah, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, and Hamas.
  • Technical Support.
    • Logistically supportive sponsorship – government provides aid and comfort to championed cause.
    • Example: Syrian support for Amal and Hezbollah.
  • Selective Participation.
    • Episode specific sponsorship.
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  • Active Participation: Joint Operations.
    • Phoenix Program: American and Vietnamese cooperation against Viet Cong.
  • Violence At Home: State Terrorism as Domestic Policy.
    • Paramilitaries and Death Squads.
    • Apartheid.
  • Legitimizing State Authority.
  • State Domestic Authority.
    • Unofficial repression.
    • Repression as policy.
    • Mass repression: Genocidal state terrorism.
  • Unofficial Repression: Vigilante Domestic State Terrorism.
  • Repression as Policy: Official Domestic State Terrorism.
  • Chapter Perspective 4.3.
    • Social Cleansing.
    • Ethnic Cleansing.
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  • Mass Repression: Genocidal Domestic State Terrorism.
  • Chapter Perspective 4.4 Anfal Campaign Domestic State Terrorism in Iraq.
  • Death Squads in Latin America.
  • Problem of Accountability: Monitoring State Terrorism.
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