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India: Sub National HDRs by R. Sridharan Oxford, 18 September 2008. India: A Few Facts. 7 th largest country by area and 2 nd by population. 12 th largest economy at market exchange rate and 4 th largest by PPP Annual average real GDP growth of 8.75% during 2003-07

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India: Sub National HDRs by R. Sridharan Oxford, 18 September 2008

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India: Sub National HDRs


R. Sridharan

Oxford, 18 September 2008


India: A Few Facts

  • 7th largest country by area and 2nd by population.
  • 12th largest economy at market exchange rate and 4th largest by PPP
  • Annual average real GDP growth of 8.75% during 2003-07
  • 28 States and 7 Union Territories
11 th five year plan 2007 2012
Main objective - Inclusive Growth

Recognition that several areas, and several sections left out


Focus on basic services – education, skill development, health, water supply and sanitation, urban development

Greatly increased Federal funding for these sectors

Renewed emphasis on agriculture

Policy support for PPP in infrastructure

11th Five Year Plan(2007-2012)
reduction of regional disparities in 11 th plan
Participatory planning and democratic decentralisation

Article 243ZD of Indian Constitution – District Planning Committees – Consolidation of plans prepared by local bodies

Guidelines on district plans issued from Planning Commission

The Backward Regions Grant Fund (BRGF) – for 250 most backward districts – capacity building for district planning

Reduction of Regional Disparities in 11th Plan
monitorable targets in 11th plan
Monitorable Targets

Key feature in the strategy of inclusive growth

Reflect multi-dimensional socio-economic objectives of inclusive growth

27 National Targets in 6 major categories

Income & Poverty,



Women & Children,



13 State specific targets

GDP and Agriculture growth,

Work Opportunities and Poverty Ratio

Drop Out Rate, Literacy and Gender Gap in Literacy


Child Malnutrition, Anemia in Women and Girls

Child Sex Ratio

Monitorable Targets in 11th Plan
implementation of 11th plan
Empowering local service providers – enforce accountability

Rule of law – Safety and access to justice for the poor

Business friendly environment

Transparency – Civil Society as a watchdog

Tackling corruption

Empowerment of PRIs

Involvement of communities in design and implementation of programmes

Monitoring and Evaluation of Outcomes

Implementation of 11th Plan
national human development reports
1st NHDR:

Published in 2001

Main features:

Extensive database for 3 points of time since 1980

70 distinct social indicators on various aspects of quality of life and well-being

Results shown in development radars

HDI, HPI and Gender equality index constructed

Main findings

Significant overall improvement in HD in previous 2 decades (1970-1990) but wide disparities across States persists

Slow improvement in gender equality

Considerable decline in human poverty but inter-State differences persists

Effective and efficient governance is critical for improving HD.

2nd NHDR :

A Committee constituted in Planning Commission for preparation of the Report

Work in Progress

National Human Development Reports
state hdrs
Global launch of HDR 1993 in New Delhi acted as trigger

First step towards State level HDR:

Madhya Pradesh Govt. released HDR 1995 (Two more published)

Govt of Karnataka released in 1999 (One more Published)

State HDRs
state hdrs10
India has the largest programme for preparation of HDRs at sub national level

21 States have published State HDRs getting financial and technical support under GoI-UNDP Project or using their own resources

Others in the process of preparation

Contribution of SHDRs:

Documenting and highlighting HD achievements and disparities among sub-State administrative units (districts)

HDI computed for districts

State HDRs
the ssphd project
Project Initiated : 1 June 2004

Project Duration :

Till 31.12.07 but extended up to 31.12.09

Initial Project Size : US$ 5.0 million

Revised Project Size – US$ 11.96 million

Executing Agency : Planning Commission

Implementing Agency : State Governments & National Resource Institutions

Focus on Analysis, Advocacy and Action

The SSPHD Project
project components
Mainstreaming HD in the State Planning Process

Improving Statistical System to fill data gaps

Formulating sustainable financing strategy for HD

Special focus on gender in HD Planning

Project Components
district human development reports

assess and quantify development imbalance at the sub-district level

analyze intra-district development imbalance and suggest possible solutions

DHDR has 3 distinct and important features

The process of preparation

The content of the report

The dissemination strategy of HD issues at district level

Important to focus also on



District Human Development Reports
dhdr preparation process
State Govts. initiate the process by identifying the districts

Selection is based on its HDI values as reflected in the SHDR or backwardness, or within district diversity, or demographic profile.

Participatory process is followed

Agency identified to anchor the technical work

Core committee (chaired by collector/CEO) to guide and monitor the process of preparation

State level Planning Dept/Board, NGOs, Universities, research institutions, participate in this venture

Full ownership by District Administration

DHDR Preparation Process
dhdr preparation process15
Data Collection and Report Preparation Methodology finalized through consultation with stake holders

Need felt for core set of common indicators, data sources

Draft reports are presented and reviewed by District core committees through an intensive, interactive process

DHDR Preparation Process
dhdr contents
Regional Profile of the District

Analyses status on:




Women’s situation and gender issues

Natural resource base (land, water and air)

Other district specific HD issues

The way ahead

DHDR Contents
dhdr participatory district planning
DHDRs & Participatory Planning:

Strong inherent participatory processes

Baseline surveys for preparation of District Plans.

Excellent tools for situation analysis

Facilitate the visioning exercise for effective district planning.

DHDR & Participatory District Planning
dhdrs issues and challenges
Ensuring the DHDR process is really participatory

Identification of right support agency and efficient co-ordination with all line departments

Adoption of uniform methodology for easy comparability within and out-side the district

Data availability, validation, and reliability mapping

Recommending policy options based on stakeholder consensus on key HD issues

Credibility – based on neutrality and objectivity

DHDRs – Issues and Challenges