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Last Class: 1. Posttranscription regulation 2. Translation regulation 3. Cell membrane, phospholipids, cholesterol PowerPoint Presentation
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Last Class: 1. Posttranscription regulation 2. Translation regulation 3. Cell membrane, phospholipids, cholesterol 4. Membrane protein, mobility, FRAP, FLIP . Carbohydrate layer (Glycocalyx) on the cell surface Protecting the cell surface from mechanical and chemical damage

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Last Class: 1. Posttranscription regulation

2. Translation regulation

3. Cell membrane, phospholipids, cholesterol

4. Membrane protein, mobility, FRAP, FLIP

slide2

Carbohydrate layer (Glycocalyx) on the cell surface

Protecting the cell surface from mechanical and chemical damage

Lymphocyte stained with ruthenium red

summary

Summary

membrane proteins and their anchoring models

Methods to study membrane proteins, detergents

diffusion, distribution, methods to study protein motion and distribution

glycocalyx, proteoglycan

slide8

Permeability of plasma membrane

General principles II

Permeability coefficient (cm/sec)

slide9

Membrane Transport Proteins

Carrier Protein and Channel Protein

slide10

Transportation Models

Passive and Active Transport

Electrochemical and concentration gradient, membrane potential

Carrier proteins: passive and active

Channels: always passive

slide11

Electrochemical Gradient

Is the combinatory effect of concentration gradient and membrane potentials

slide12

Ionophores can serve as channels and carriers for ions

Example: A23187, calcium permeabilizing agent

slide14

Conformational change of a carrier protein

Mediates passive transport

Change is spontaneous and random, so dependent on concentration

slide16

3 ways of driving active transportation utilizing passive carriers

  • Coupled carriers
  • ATP-driven pumps
  • Light-driven pumps
slide18

Coupled transportation of glucose and Na+

Cooperative binding of Na+ and glucose to the carrier.

Outer surface, Na+ high concentration induces the high affinity of glucose to carrier

slide19

Transcellular transport

Tight junction separates apical and basal/lateral spaces

Apical: glucose and Na+ coupling; basal/lateral: glucose is passive, Na+ maintained by ATP-driven pump

slide20

Na+-K+ Pump, ATPase

P-type transport ATPase (dependent on phosphorylation)

slide22

Calcium Pump

ATP binding and hydrolysis can push calcium inside by bring N and P domain together

slide23

A typical Ion Channel

1. selectivity, 2. Gated (close and open)

slide25

The Structure of bacterial K+ channel

Selectivity 10,000 fold over Na, although K+ 0.133nm, Na+ 0.095 nm

slide26

The Selectivity of bacterial K+ channel

Carbonyl oxygens at selective filter

slide27

Gating Model of K+ channel

Selectivity filter is fixed, the vestibule open and close like a diaphragm

summary28
Summary
  • Membrane transportation, carrier protein, channel protein
  • Active transportation, passive transportation
  • Carrier Proteins, coupled carriers, ATPases, Na+-K+ Pump
  • Gating mechanisms of Ion Channels, K+ channel selectivity
slide33

Topological relationships between compartments of the secretory and endocytic pathways in a eucaryotic cell

slide34

A schematic roadmap of protein traffic

Red: gated transport

Blue: transmembrane transport

Green: vesicular transport

slide43

The function of a nuclear localization signal

  • Nuclear localization signal: NLS
  • Nuclear export signal: NES
slide45

The compartmentalization of Ran-GDP and Ran-GTP

Ran-GAP: cytosol->Ran-GDP

Ran-GEF: nucleus->Ran-GTP

slide46

A model for how GTP hydrolysis by Ran provides directionality for nuclear transport

slide59

Three ways in which protein translocation can be driven through structurally similar translocators

slide61

How a single-pass transmembrane protein with a cleaved ER signal sequence is integrated into the ER membrane

slide62

Integration of a single-pass membrane protein with an internal signal sequence into the ER membrane

slide63

Integration of a double-pass membrane protein with an internal signal sequence into the ER membrane

slide65

The asparagine-linked (N-linked) precursor oligosaccharide that is added to most proteins in the rough ER membrane

slide67

The role of N-linked glycosylation in ER protein folding

Calnexin: membrane-bound chaperone protein

Calreticulin: soluble chaperone protein

summary74

Summary

Nucleus translocation, NLS, NES, nuclear pore complex, Ran-GTP

Endoplasmic reticulum, rough ER, smooth ER,

SRP, soluble and membrane proteins in ER,

Glycosylation in ER, folding,

Membrane lipid bilayer assembly