protein amino acids 1 gram 4 kcal l.
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Protein /Amino Acids : 1 gram = 4 kcal Protein is needed for: building & maintaining all body tissue Malnutrition results in a disease called Kwashiorkor (lack of complete protein) A disease resulting in a lack of protein & energy is Marasmus (starvation) 1. Composition of Protein:

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protein amino acids 1 gram 4 kcal
Protein /Amino Acids:1 gram = 4 kcal
  • Protein is needed for:

building & maintaining all body tissue

  • Malnutrition results in a disease called

Kwashiorkor (lack of complete protein)

  • A disease resulting in a lack of protein& energy is Marasmus(starvation)
1 composition of protein
1. Composition of Protein:

Proteins are made up of smaller units or building blocks called Amino Acids

2 categories of Amino Acids:

a. Essential

*can NOT be made in the body

b. Non essential

*can bemade in the body

a essential amino acids
A. Essential Amino Acids:
  • There are 9 amino acids in total

*called essential because you must get them from your diet

  • They are essential for life & growth
  • The body is NOTable to produce these nine Amino acids.
  • They must be obtained from your diet
  • Found in animal protein food sources *except Soy proteins
b non essential amino acids
B. NON Essential Amino Acids
  • There are 21 non-essential

amino acids.

  • And they are also necessary for life & growth
  • However: these are produced by the body.
the structure of amino acids
The Structure of Amino Acids
  • When many amino acids are grouped together they are called a Polypeptide.
  • A chain of Polypeptides is called a Protein.


  •  is the unique element of protein that is found in all animal life & forms of DNA.
2 functions of protein
2. Functions of Protein:
  • It is needed forbuilding & maintainanceof every cell ie. forms the neurotransmitters in your brain!
  • It is critical for growth, especially in pregnancy, lactation & infancy
  • regulates many body processes

* it is also critical to maintaing fluid balance

  • forms enzymes, hormones & antibodies
  • provides a source of energy 1gram = 4 kcal

* it is too ‘expensive’ to use as energy & should be used to build tissue first

3 protein sparing action
3. Protein Sparing Action:

* Protein should be spared for its most vital function

  • Carbohydrate & Fat provide energy for the body
  • This allows protein to be used for:

building tissue & other functions that are more vital to the body.

*Protein means ‘first’ in latin because its most vital to the body for development & growth

quality of the protein
Quality of the Protein:

A. Complete Protein:

  • Contains ALL the essential Amino Acids in the proper amounts to be used by the human body to support life & growth.
  • Food sources: animal products +soya nuts*eggs+milk + poultry + cheese + fish +

* however: proper combinations of plant foods may prouduce a complete protein  which is necessary for Vegetarian’s health

b incomplete proteins
B. Incomplete Proteins:
  • If a protein is missing or is low in 1 or more of the essential Amino Acids then it is considered to be an Incomplete Protein.
  • Incomplete proteins can NOT be used for building tissue!

*excess amino acids will be used by the body for excess energy & may end up being stored as fat

  • Food sources:
    • * legumes, (beans, peas, lentils) grains, vegetables, nuts & seeds, corn
improving the quality of protein so that it may be used for its primary purpose
Improving the Quality of Protein so that it may be used for its primary purpose

Primary purpose:Build, Repair & Maintain all body tissues

A. Complimentary Protein:

The ability of two or more protein foods that can be combined to make up for the insufficient essential Amino Acids.

  • For example: some combinations of plant proteins make perfect matches and they fulfill each other’s needs for missing amino acids * see handout

ie. Legumes & breads  peanut butter sandwhich

improving quality of protein
Improving Quality of Protein

B. Mutual Supplementation:

  • The combination of a Complete Protein with an InComplete Protein
    • Macaroni & Cheese (cheese & grains)
    • Cheese sandwich
    • Milk & cereal
    • *the lower & missing levels of amino acids in the grains are supplimented by the addition of the cheese (a more complete balance of amino acids) thereby, improving the quality of the total protein.
4 digestion of protein
4. Digestion of Protein:
  • Protein must be digested before the body can absorb it into the

blood system.

  • Protein breaks down into amino acids

in the Small Intestine.

5 protein requirements
5. Protein Requirements:
  • 10 – 15% of our daily calorie intake

should be protein.

this can be from complete proteins (animal products or soy) or a combination of complementary & or supplementary proteins.

* NOTE: in order for the body to be able to build tissue it must have a COMPLETE SOURCE OF AMINO ACIDS at one time  a complete protein.

 Also note: excess protein is converted to fat & can result in

obesity, excess work for the liver & kidneys

* high levels of protein also interferes with Ca absorption

6 vegetarianism
6. Vegetarianism:
  • a style of eating in which the individual does not eat animal flesh such as:
    • meat or poultry
    • may also exclude animal products such as eggs & dairy
    • There are several types of Vegetarians
    • It is also becoming a more popular lifestyle choice
why vegetarianism
Why Vegetarianism?
  • lack of availability of animal products
  • Affordability animal products are expensive
  • a desire to avoid harming animals
  • a religious belief that prohibits eating certain animal products
  • a desire to preserve the world’s food supply
  • to avoid animal products for health reasons
health benefits
Health Benefits:

Lower riskof developing:

  • obesity, heart disease,
  • hypertension
  • diabetes,
  • breast & colon cancers
types of vegetarians
Types of Vegetarians:

1. Vegan:

  • will eat NO animal products
  • Eats: grains, legumes, nuts/seeds, F & Veg.
  • MUST eat meat substitues or complementary protein at each meal!
  • NOT an appropriate diet for children under 2 yrs
  • MAY require Vit. B12 supplements
  • must monitor intake of: iron, Ca & zinc
2 lacto vegetarian
2. Lacto Vegetarian:
  • Lacto refers to milk
  • will drink milk & use dairy products
    • such as yogurt, cheese,
    • Also eats: * grains, legumes,

* nuts & seeds

* fruit & veg.

    • must monitor intake of: iron & zinc
3 lacto ovo vegetarian
3. Lacto-ovo Vegetarian:
  • Ovo refers to eggs
  • Eats: eggs, drinks milk & uses dairy
  • Also: * grains, legumes,

* nuts & seeds

* fruit & veg.

  • There is no need for supplementation
4 other vegetarians
4. Other Vegetarians:
  • Pesco Veg.:
    • excludes poultry & meat but eats fish
  • Pollo Veg.:
    • excludes red meat but eats poultry &fish
  • Fruitarian:
    • primarily eats fruits, nuts & honey, vegetables & oils

*must monitor their food intake closely to ensure health!