Proteins
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Proteins. Proteins. Polymers composed of amino acids Protein = Polypeptide (polymer) Monomer = Amino acids Peptide bonds Amino acid Amine Group (NH2) Basic Carboxylic Acid Group (COOH) Acidic. Protein Functions. 4 Levels of Protein Structure. Primary level Sequence of amino acids

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Proteins1
Proteins

  • Polymers composed of amino acids

  • Protein = Polypeptide (polymer)

    • Monomer = Amino acids

  • Peptide bonds

  • Amino acid

    • Amine Group (NH2)

      • Basic

    • Carboxylic Acid Group (COOH)

      • Acidic



  • 4 levels of protein structure
    4 Levels of Protein Structure

    • Primary level

      • Sequence of amino acids

      • Polar covalent bonds link the amino acids

      • Only level that doesn’t use hydrogen bonds

  • Secondary

    • Hydrogen bonding between amino acid side groups

    • The sequence of amino acids converts into 1 of 2 forms

      • α-helix

      • β-pleated sheets



  • 1 2 animations
    1’ & 2’ Animations

    • 05_21aPrimaryStructure.swf

    • 05_21bSecondaryStructure.swf


    3 4 structure
    3’ & 4’ Structure

    • Tertiary

      • 3D shape of a polypeptide

      • Many types of bonds/interactions between side groups

      • Disulfide bridges are most significant here

  • Quaternary

    • 2 or more polypeptides (subunits) of a protein

    • Not found in all proteins

    • Same bonds/interactions as tertiary level



  • 3 4 animations
    3’ & 4’ Animations

    • 05_21cTertiaryStructure.swf

    • 05_21dQuaternaryStructure.swf

    • Animation-03-01.swf



    Protein denaturation1
    Protein Denaturation

    • Denaturation

      • Protein unravels and loses its native conformation

  • Structure & Function

    • Change in the protein’s structure = loss of function

  • Denaturation occurs:

    • Organic solvent

    • Any chemical that disrupts the tertiary structure

    • Heat (excessive)


  • Chaperonins
    Chaperonins

    • Proteins that assist the proper folding of other proteins

    • Provide stable, insulated environment for polypeptide to achieve the correct conformation


    Protein questions
    Protein Questions

    • Name all of the bonds in primary protein structure?

    • What bonds hold together secondary structure?

    • What about tertiary level? Quaternary?

    • Which level of protein structure is NOT found in all proteins?


    Protein questions answers
    Protein Questions (Answers)

    • Name all of the bonds in primary protein structure?

      • Polar Covalent or peptide

    • What bonds hold together secondary structure?

      • Hydrogen bonds, though not really bonds

    • What about tertiary level? Quaternary?

      • Hydrogen, Disulfide bridges, Hydrophobic interactions, Ionic bonds, etc.

    • Which level of protein structure is NOT found in all proteins? Quaternary


    Protein questions page 2
    Protein Questions (Page 2)

    • What is the name of a protein’s monomer?

    • What is the name of a protein’s polymeric form?

    • What are the 2 functional groups on an Amino Acid?


    Protein questions page 21
    Protein Questions (Page 2)

    • What is the name of a protein’s monomer?

      • Amino Acid

    • What is the name of a protein’s polymeric form?

      • Polypeptide

    • What are the 2 functional groups on an Amino Acid?

      • Amino – (basic) & Carboxyl – (acidic)