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THE MADAGASCAR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE BIODIVERSITY GROUP: BACKGROUND AND HISTORY. David Kingston Department of Chemistry Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University Web: www .kingston.chem.vt.edu. Natural Products as Drugs and Drug Leads. 6%.

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THE MADAGASCAR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE BIODIVERSITY GROUP: BACKGROUND AND HISTORY


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    1. THE MADAGASCAR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE BIODIVERSITY GROUP: BACKGROUND AND HISTORY David Kingston Department of Chemistry Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University Web: www .kingston.chem.vt.edu

    2. Natural Products as Drugs and Drug Leads 6% • WHO estimates that ~80% of the world’s population use traditional medicine. • Between 1983 and 1994 41% of new approved drugs had natural products as their source. David J. Newman, et al. Nat. Prod. Rep., 2000, 17, 215-234 Gordon M. Cragg, et al. J. Nat. Prod., 1997, 60, 52-60 26% 59% 9% • Natural Product Drugs • Modified Natural Product Drugs • Synthetic Drugs Based on Natural Product Models • Synthetic Drugs

    3. MORE REASONS FOR FAITH IN NATURAL PRODUCTS NP are more diverse than synthetics Synthetic Compound from combinatorial chemistry Chiral ctr = 0.4 Natural Products Chiral ctr = 6.2 Drugs Chiral ctr = 2.3 Feher and Schmidt 2003 J Chem Inf Comput Sci 43:218 61% of all the new drugs introduced Worldwide during 1981-2002 can be traced to or were inspired by Natural Products. Newman, Cragg, Snader 2003 J Nat Prod 66:1022

    4. SOME IMPORTANT ANTICANCER NATURAL PRODUCTS TAXOL, from Taxus brevifolia • Treatment for ovarian and breast cancer • Also used in stents to prevent restenosis • Major drug, with sales of over one billion dollars/year

    5. WHY NATURAL PRODUCTS? NATURAL PRODUCTS CAN FORM THE BASIS OF NEW COMPOUND LIBRARIES R. Breinbauer et al, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2002, 41, 2878 EXAMPLE: THE HALICHONDRINS M. J. Yu 224th ACS National Meeting, Boston, MA, August 21, 2001, Abstract MEDI 238.

    6. DRUG DISCOVERY THROUGH NATURAL PRODUCTS COLLECT LARGE NUMBERS OF PLANT, MARINE, OR MICROBIAL SPECIES PREPARE EXTRACTS AND TEST IN RELEVANT BIOASSAY SYSTEMS RECOLLECT OR REFERMENT ACTIVE SPECIES AND ISOLATE ACTIVE COMPOUNDS BY A BIOASSAY-DIRECTED FRACTIONATION DETERMINE STRUCTURES OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS CARRY OUT ADDITIONAL BIOLOGICAL TESTING

    7. THE PROBLEM OF BIODIVERSITY LOSS DRUG DISCOVERY REQUIRES RANDOM SCREENING OF THOUSANDS OF SPECIES “YOU HAVE TO KISS A LOT OF FROGS TO FIND A PRINCE” TROPICAL RAINFORESTS COVER ONLY 8% OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE BUT HOLD 50% OF ITS PLANTS TROPICAL FORESTS ARE DISAPPEARING FAST; DOWN FROM 16% OF EARTH’S LAND SURFACE IN 1950 TO LESS THAN 8% TODAY TROPICAL REEFS ARE ALSO UNDER THREAT LOSS OF RAINFOREST MEANS THE POTENTIAL LOSS OF CURES FOR CANCER, AIDS, ETC.

    8. Brazil Vegetation 1960

    9. Brazil Brazil Vegetation 1988

    10. THE MADAGASCAR ICBG APPROACH TO BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION CARRY OUT BIOPROSPECTING WITH FULL INFORMED CONSENT OF ALL PARTIES PARTNER WITH PHARMACEUTICAL AND AGROCHEMICAL COMPANIES SINCE BIODIVERSITY LOSS IS CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH POVERTY, COMBINE BIOPROSPECTING WITH ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES COMMIT TO RETURN ANY ROYALTY PAYMENTS IN PART TO THE HOST COUNTRY IN COMPENSATION FOR USE OF ITS BIODIVERSITY

    11. HOW AND WHERE TO DO THIS? • 1992 NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH INVITED SCIENTISTS TO COMPETE FOR FUNDS TO DO DRUG DISCOVERY AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION • 1993-1998 VIRGINIA TECH PROPOSAL FUNDED TO DO WORK IN SURINAME • 1998-2003 RENEWAL PROPOSAL FUNDED TO DO WORK IN SURINAME AND MADAGASCAR • 2003-2008 THIRD ROUND OF FUNDING AWARDED FOR WORK IN MADAGASCAR

    12. MADAGASCAR GROUP STRUCTURE • VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE & STATE UNIVERSITY • CENTRAL OPERATIONS OFFICE • MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN • BOTANICAL COLLECTIONS, BIODIVERSITY SURVEY • CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL • ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION CENTRE NATIONAL D’APPLICATION ET DES RECHERCHES PHARMACEUTIQUES • PLANT EXTRACTS, ANTIMALARIAL FRACTIONATION CENTRE NATIONAL DE RECHERCHES SUR L’ENVIRONNEMENT • MARINE COLLECTION, MICROBIAL ISOLATIONS EISAI RESEARCH INSTITUTE • BIOASSAY, DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT • DOW AGROSCIENCES • AGROCHEMICAL DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT • VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE & STATE UNIVERSITY • BIOASSAY AND ANTICANCER DRUG DISCOVERY

    13. GOALS OF THE MADAGASCAR ICBG PROGRAM TO INTEGRATE THE PROCESS OF DRUG AND AGROCHEMICAL DISCOVERY FROM NATURAL PRODUCTS WITH CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, WHILE PROVIDING FINANCIAL BENEFITS TO MADAGASCAR AND ITS PEOPLE

    14. WHY MADAGASCAR? • Madagascar is a prime source of biodiversity. • Madagascar is one of the highest priority “Biodiversity Hotspots” • Home to 25% of the plant species in the African region • Approximately 80% of species are endemic • Great ecosystem diversity • Work is urgent, since much of the country has been deforested MADAGASCAR

    15. SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT IN MADAGASCAR • Laboratories at CNARP have been equipped to prepare plant extracts • Laboratories at CNARP have been equipped and personnel trained to carry out antimalarial bioassays • Facilities at CNRO (Nosy be) are being equipped to carry out marine collections • Personnel at CNRE will be trained in microbial isolations • Data handling infrastructure has been expanded

    16. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN MADAGASCAR • SMALL-SCALE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN THE VILLAGES AROUND ZAHAMENA PARK, SITE OF 1998-2003 COLLECTIONS BEE KEEPING ECOTOURISM INITIATIVE IMPROVED CROPS

    17. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN MADAGASCAR • SMALL-SCALE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN THE VILLAGES AROUND ZAHAMENA PARK, SITE OF 1998-2003 COLLECTIONS BEE KEEPING ECOTOURISM INITIATIVE IMPROVED CROPS • INFRASTRUCTURE IMPROVEMENTS USING UPFRONT COMPENSATION FUNDS IN THE SAME VILLAGES AGRICULTURAL WAREHOUSE RENOVATION OF A PRIMARY SCHOOL CONSTRUCTION OF A FOOTBRIDGE