Personality Chapter 6. Introduction. This lecture will: Introduce psychological and sociological perspectives that have shaped our understanding of personality Describe trait/socio-cultural/psychodynamic and phenomenological approaches to personality
This lecture will:
Introduce psychological and sociological perspectives that have shaped our understanding of personality
Describe trait/socio-cultural/psychodynamic and phenomenological approaches to personality
Look at psychological theories in the workplace and psychological testing
Develop your understanding of how these features shape personality
Personality is a relatively enduring pattern of thinking, feeling and acting that characterize a person’s response to his or her environment:
It contains reference to individuality and is influenced by social context and traits
To study personality we need to find the causes of behavioural patterns – what is the enduring aspect of the personality?
Identity is the complex link between inner self and outer context:
Identity is linked to culture – individuals are socialized into a culture
Diversity of personality is important in a workplace
To establish personality can involve testing.
There are several main theories of personality:
This lecture will examine each in turn...
A trait is a relatively enduring personal characteristic.
Core traits that are displayed consistently can be used as the basis of predictive theory.
Allport (1897-1967) distinguished central from secondary traits.
He used factor analysis to find clusters of traits linked to specific behaviour (defined as being introvert or extrovert)
Cattell (1965) extended Allport’s ideasby defining core traits with the ’16 Personality factor Questionnaire’
Eysenck (1916-1997) devised a 3 Factor Model of Personality.
He used factor analysis and categories of instability/stability, Introversion and Extroversion
His theory related to the Ancient Theory of Humours – which classified people as choleric/melancholic/phlegmatic /Sanguine
Figure 6.3 - Eysenck’s major personality dimensions
The Five Factor Model of Personality (“The Big Five”) proposes that personality is organized around five core dimensions:
It is similar to Eysenck’s theory, using a smaller number of variables than the earliest theorists
Sigmund Freud developed the psychodynamic theory of personality – this proposes that the personality is:
Amix of conscious and subconscious process
Expressed as linking id, ego and superego
The theory argues that personality goes through seven successive phases to reach maturity
It sees anxiety as being formed by the conflict of id and superego to control the ego
Defence mechanisms are formed as a result of this conflict
These theories root personality in social experience, communities of practice and relationships
Three examples of sociocultural theories are:
Social cognitive approach
Figure 6.5 - Bandura’s Model of Reciprocal Determinism
Phenomenology emphasises interpretative aspects of a person’s experience.
Maslow (1954) believed that motivation is based on a needs hierarchy; his famous “Triangle” or Pyramid
Rogers (1961) evolved a theory related to the development of a self-concept; aimed at self-actualization
Holland (1985) emphasised the matching of personality and work characteristics
He evolved a personality/job fit model which included traits matched to occupations
He discerned six personality ‘types’ (see the next slide)
His conclusions show intrinsic differences in personalities exist and are practical relative to work place match of personality and job-type (see the slide after that)
The conclusions are important for the new forms of ‘knowledge worker’ – the new human capital...
Social capital and the value of skilled employees means a more stringent selection process:
An employee must be proactive; capable of co-creating his/her own environment
New modes of personality testing include:
Personality tests vary in quality – but they should be reliable and valid
They are more subtle than earlier modes of Tayloristic work measurement but have limitations