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Personality Chapter 6. Introduction. This lecture will: Introduce psychological and sociological perspectives that have shaped our understanding of personality Describe trait/socio-cultural/psychodynamic and phenomenological approaches to personality

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personality chapter 6
Personality

Chapter 6

introduction
Introduction

This lecture will:

Introduce psychological and sociological perspectives that have shaped our understanding of personality

Describe trait/socio-cultural/psychodynamic and phenomenological approaches to personality

Look at psychological theories in the workplace and psychological testing

Develop your understanding of how these features shape personality

personality and identity
Personality and identity

Personality is a relatively enduring pattern of thinking, feeling and acting that characterize a person’s response to his or her environment:

It contains reference to individuality and is influenced by social context and traits

To study personality we need to find the causes of behavioural patterns – what is the enduring aspect of the personality?

Identity is the complex link between inner self and outer context:

Identity is linked to culture – individuals are socialized into a culture

Diversity of personality is important in a workplace

To establish personality can involve testing.

figure 6 1 perceived characteristics of behaviour s seen as affecting an individuals personality
Figure 6.1 - Perceived characteristics of behaviour’s seen as affecting an individuals personality
theories of personality
Theories of personality

There are several main theories of personality:

Trait

Psychodynamic

Socio-Cultural

Phenomenological

This lecture will examine each in turn...

trait theory 1
Trait Theory (1)

A trait is a relatively enduring personal characteristic.

Core traits that are displayed consistently can be used as the basis of predictive theory.

Allport (1897-1967) distinguished central from secondary traits.

He used factor analysis to find clusters of traits linked to specific behaviour (defined as being introvert or extrovert)

Cattell (1965) extended Allport’s ideasby defining core traits with the ’16 Personality factor Questionnaire’

trait theory 2
Trait Theory (2)

Eysenck (1916-1997) devised a 3 Factor Model of Personality.

He used factor analysis and categories of instability/stability, Introversion and Extroversion

His theory related to the Ancient Theory of Humours – which classified people as choleric/melancholic/phlegmatic /Sanguine

Figure 6.3 - Eysenck’s major personality dimensions

trait theory 3
Trait Theory (3)

The Five Factor Model of Personality (“The Big Five”) proposes that personality is organized around five core dimensions:

Openness

Conscientiousness

Extroversion

Agreeableness

Neuroticism

It is similar to Eysenck’s theory, using a smaller number of variables than the earliest theorists

psychodynamic theory
Psychodynamic Theory

Sigmund Freud developed the psychodynamic theory of personality – this proposes that the personality is:

Amix of conscious and subconscious process

Expressed as linking id, ego and superego

The theory argues that personality goes through seven successive phases to reach maturity

It sees anxiety as being formed by the conflict of id and superego to control the ego

Defence mechanisms are formed as a result of this conflict

figure 6 4 freud s conception of the personality structure the freudian iceberg
Figure 6.4 - Freud’s conception of the personality structure: ‘the Freudian Iceberg’
sociocultural theories
Sociocultural Theories

These theories root personality in social experience, communities of practice and relationships

Three examples of sociocultural theories are:

Social cognitive approach

Phenomenological approach

Socially-constructed approach

the social cognitive approach
The Social Cognitive Approach
  • The Social Cognitive approach emphasises the role of learning to achieve personality development
  • Rotter developed a theory based on expectation and the value placed on outcome. He also stressed the idea of a locus of control:
    • The strong inner locus of control is associated with workplace success
  • Bandura argues that both personality and environment reciprocally determine the development of personality

Figure 6.5 - Bandura’s Model of Reciprocal Determinism

phenomenological approach
Phenomenological Approach

Phenomenology emphasises interpretative aspects of a person’s experience.

Theories include:

Maslow (1954) believed that motivation is based on a needs hierarchy; his famous “Triangle” or Pyramid

Rogers (1961) evolved a theory related to the development of a self-concept; aimed at self-actualization

socially constructed approach
Socially-constructed Approach
  • Mead (1863-1931) developed the socially-constructed approach and coined the term ‘looking-glass self’
  • This approach argues that personality evolves as consequence of internalization of their context or environment rather than due to innate factors
    • The idea is rooted in symbolic interactionism
applying personality theories in the workplace
Applying Personality Theories in the Workplace

Holland (1985) emphasised the matching of personality and work characteristics

He evolved a personality/job fit model which included traits matched to occupations

He discerned six personality ‘types’ (see the next slide)

His conclusions show intrinsic differences in personalities exist and are practical relative to work place match of personality and job-type (see the slide after that)

The conclusions are important for the new forms of ‘knowledge worker’ – the new human capital...

table 6 3 holland s typology of personality and congruent work environments and jobs
Table 6.3 - Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent work environments and jobs
personality testing
Personality Testing

Social capital and the value of skilled employees means a more stringent selection process:

An employee must be proactive; capable of co-creating his/her own environment

New modes of personality testing include:

Interview

Personality inventories

Behavioural assessment

Online assessment

Personality tests vary in quality – but they should be reliable and valid

They are more subtle than earlier modes of Tayloristic work measurement but have limitations